U6L1 And in Cantonese

In this lesson, And in Cantonese will be introduced.  Prepositional conjunction(介詞性連詞) 同 [tung4], 同埋 [tung4 maai4] and 夾埋 [gaap3 maai4] means And in Cantonese.  Unlike conjunction(連詞), which connects two or more clauses or sentences together and form a complex sentence(複句), prepositional conjunction connects two nouns together in the structure of coordination(並列式).

And in Cantonese:同 [tung4]、同埋 [tung4 maai4] and 夾埋 [gaap3 maai4]

The meaning and usage of 同 [tung4] and 同埋 [tung4 maai4] is identical and they are used to connect two nouns together neutrally.  Meanwhile, 夾埋 [gaap3 maai4] possesses a negative nuance.

Prepositional conjunction

同 [tung4] 同埋 [tung4 maai4] 夾埋 [gaap3 maai4]

 

Ngo5 tung4 uk1 kei2 jan4 dou1 zung1 ji3 teng1 go1

我同屋企人都中意聽歌。

My family and I like listening to music.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我同屋企人 中意 聽歌

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

Subject of the sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Prepositional conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 屋企人

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 屋企
Head

 

sai3 go3 go2 zan6 ngo5 heoi3 gwo3 dak1 gwok3 tung4 maai4 faat3 gwok3

細個嗰陣我去過德國同埋法國。

When I was young, I have been to Germany and France.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Noun Sentence
Words in sentence 細個嗰陣 我去過德國同埋法國

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Cognate object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 德國同埋法國

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Cognate object 1 Prepositional conjunction Cognate object 2
Part of speech Noun Conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 德國 同埋 法國

 

wu4 dip2 tung4 mat6 fung1 dou1 sik1 fei1

蝴蝶同蜜蜂都識飛。

Both butterflies and bees know how to fly.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Verb
Words in sentence 蝴蝶同蜜蜂

 

Subject of the sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Prepositional conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 蝴蝶 蜜蜂

 

ngo5 gaap3 maai4 nei5 zi2 hai6 dak1 loeng5 go3 jan4

我夾埋你只係得兩個人。

We only have two people include you and me.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 我夾埋你 只係 兩個人

 

Subject of the sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Prepositional conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 夾埋

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 兩個
Head

 

ngo5 gaap3 maai4 nei5 dou1 mou5 jeng4 keoi5 ge3 gei1 wui6

我夾埋你都冇贏佢嘅機會。

We have no chance to win him even if we team up together.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 我夾埋你 贏佢嘅機會

 

Subject of the sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Prepositional conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 夾埋

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 贏佢
Head 機會

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 234-236

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