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U2L1 Cantonese grammar 喺 [hai2] and 响 [hoeng2]

U2L1 Cantonese grammar 喺 [hai2] and 响 [hoeng2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 喺[hai2] and 响[hoeng2] will be introduced.  The classes of 喺 are overlapped and it can be used as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞).  The difference between preposition and verb in Cantonese will be explained clearly in Unit 3 Lesson 2.  Beware that this word looks very similar with the linking verb(繫詞)係[hai6] which you have learnt in Unit 1 Lesson 2.

Grammar of 喺[hai2]

喺[hai2] is used to indicate the location of someone or something.  In addition, it can also be used to indicate the time for an incident to happen.  Nevertheless, the grammar of using 喺 to indicate time will not be included in this lesson.  They will be included in Unit 2 Lesson 7.

Ngo5 hai2 hoeng1 gong2

我喺香港。

I am in Hong Kong.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

香港

 

Keoi5 dei6 hai2 uk1 kei2

佢哋喺屋企。

They are at home.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

佢哋

屋企

 

hoeng1 gong2 hai2 ngaa3 zau1

香港喺亞洲。

Hong Kong is in Asia.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

香港

亞洲

 

jing1 gwok3 hai2 au1 zau1

英國喺歐洲。

Britain is in Europe.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

英國

歐洲

 

naam4 fei1 hai2 fei1 zau1

南非喺非洲。

South Africa is in Africa.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

南非

非洲

 

baa1 sai1 hai2 naam4 mei5 zau1

巴西喺南美洲。

Brazil is in South America.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

巴西

南美洲

 

mei5 gwok3 hai2 bak1 mei5 zau1

美國喺北美洲。

USA is in North America.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

美國

北美洲

 

Negating 喺[hai2]

If there is no adverb(副詞)or predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾), you can use adverb 唔[m4] to negate the above sentences; if there is adverb or predicative suffix, you have to use 唔 with auxiliary verb(助動詞)係[hai6] to negate the sentence.

Ngo5 m4 hai2 hoeng1 gong2

喺香港。

I am not in Hong Kong.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Adverbial

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Adverb

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

香港

 

Ngo5 m4 hai6 ging1 soeng4 hai2 hoeng1 gong2

唔係經常喺香港。

I am not always in Hong Kong.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Adverbial

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Adverb

Auxiliary verb

Clause

Words in sentence

經常香港

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Adverbial

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

/

Adverb

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

/

經常

香港

 

Using nouns related with location as subject

Similar with those nouns related with time, we can also use subject-predicative(主謂式)to describe a sentence by using a clause(分句)as the subject(主語).  You can use a clause that uses 喺[hai2] as its predicate to indicate the place for the action described in the predicate of the main sentence to take place.  The 喺 used here is a preposition(介詞)and the rule of using preposition will be explained in Unit 3 Lesson 2.

hai2 fo3 sat1 hok6 saang1 m4 ho2 ji5 sik6 je5

喺課室學生唔可以食嘢。

Students are not allowed to eat in the classroom.

Type of sentence structure

Subject-predicative

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Part of speech

Clause

Sentence

Words in sentence

喺課室

學生唔可以食嘢

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/課室

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence學生可以食嘢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

hai2 fu4 sau2 din6 tai1 ngo5 dei6 m4 jing1 goi1 paau2

喺扶手電梯我哋唔應該跑。

We should not run on the escalator.

Type of sentence structure

Subject-predicative

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Part of speech

Clause

Sentence

Words in sentence

喺扶手電梯

我哋唔應該跑

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/扶手電梯

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence我哋應該

 

hai2 sat1 noi6 ngo5 dei6 m4 ho2 ji5 sik6 jin1

喺室內我哋唔可以食煙。

We cannot smoke indoors.

Type of sentence structure

Subject-predicative

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Part of speech

Clause

Sentence

Words in sentence

喺室內

我哋唔可以食煙

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/室內

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary VerbClause
Words in sentence我哋可以食煙

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

喺[hai2] vs 响[hoeng2]

The grammar of 喺[hai2] and 响[hoeng2] is identical.  喺[hai2] in all of the above sentences can be replaced with 响[hoeng2] without changing the meaning of the sentence.  

Keoi5 dei6 hoeng2 uk1 kei2

佢哋响屋企。

They are at home.

Type of sentence structure

Predicative-object

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Object

Part of speech

Noun

Verb

Noun

Words in sentence

佢哋

屋企

 

hoeng2 fu4 sau2 din6 tai1 ngo5 dei6 m4 jing1 goi1 paau2

响扶手電梯我哋唔應該跑。

We should not run on the escalator.

Type of sentence structure

Subject-predicative

Functions in sentence

Subject

Predicate

Part of speech

Clause

Sentence

Words in sentence

响扶手電梯

我哋唔應該跑

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/扶手電梯

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence我哋應該

 

Reference for the grammar of 喺[hai2] and 响[hoeng2]

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 256-257, 404-406

That’s it for this Cantonese grammar lesson!  If you appreciate our work, sign up now and give us a LikeCoin by clicking the LikeCoin button below 5 times.  It will empower us to create more useful contents for you in the future!

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