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U3L7 Cantonese grammar 將 [zoeng1]

In this lesson, the grammar of 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Preposition(介詞)將 [zoeng1] can only be used as the first predicate in the predicative expression in series (連謂式)for moving the second object before the second predicate.  Although this grammar was adopted from Mandarin and it has no specific meaning in Cantonese now, it is still widely used by native speakers.

Rules for using 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese grammar

There are a few rules for using 將.  First of all, the object of 將 has to be a direct object(直接賓語)with a definite reference(確定指稱).

Secondly, you can only use 將 if a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾), complement(補語), adverbial(狀語), cognate object(同指賓語)or indirect object(間接賓語)is used with the second predicate.

Keoi5 zoeng1 ngo5 di1 wun6 geoi6 dam2 zo2

佢將我啲玩具抌咗。(佢抌咗我啲玩具。)

He/ she threw away my toys.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffix
Words in sentence我啲玩具

 

Object 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我啲
Head玩具

 

Ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5 zoeng1 ngo5 fan6 jan4 gung1 sai2 saai3

我女朋友將我份人工使晒。(我女朋友使晒我份人工。)

My girlfriend has completely used up my salary.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffix
Words in sentence我女朋友我份人工使

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head女朋友

 

Object 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我份
Head人工

 

Ngo5 ge3 pang4 jau5 zoeng1 ngo5 ge3 din6 waa2 hou6 maa5 gung1 hoi1 zo2

我嘅朋友將我嘅電話號碼公開咗。(我嘅朋友公開咗我嘅電話號碼。)

My friends has made my phone number public.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffix
Words in sentence我嘅朋友我嘅電話號碼公開

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head朋友

 

Object 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head電話號碼

 

hoeng1 gong2 zing3 fu2 zoeng1 hoeng1 gong2 jan4 ceot1 maai6 zo2

香港政府將香港人出賣咗。(香港政府出賣咗香港人。)

The Hong Kong government has betrayed Hong-kongers.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffix
Words in sentence香港政府香港人出賣

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier香港
Head政府

 

Object 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier香港
Head

 

Ngo5 zyu6 gan2 daai6 hok6 suk1 se5 ge3 si4 hau6,aa3 maa1 zoeng1 ngo5 di1 maan6 waa2 syu1 pek6 zo2

我住𡁵大學宿舍嘅時候,阿媽將我啲漫畫書擗咗。(我住𡁵大學宿舍嘅時候,阿媽擗咗我啲漫畫書。)

When I was living in university dormitory, my mum had thrown away my comic books.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence我住𡁵大學宿舍嘅時候阿媽將我啲漫畫書擗咗

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我住𡁵大學宿舍
Head時候

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffix
Words in sentence阿媽我啲漫畫書

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我啲
Head漫畫書

Using adverbial with 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese grammar

Adverbial(狀語)will be explained in-depth in Unit 5.

ngo5 zoeng1 bun2 gaau3 fo1 syu1 bat1 ting4 tai2

我將本教科書不停睇。

I read the textbook again and again.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounAdverbVerb
Words in sentence本教科書不停

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head教科書

 

lou5 si1 zoeng1 di1 hok6 saang1 hou2 ngok3 gam2 waa6

老師將啲學生好惡噉話。

The teacher scolds students scarily.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounAdverbVerb
Words in sentence老師啲學生好惡噉

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head學生

 

siu2 tau1 zoeng1 dou6 mun4 tau1 tau1 dei2 hoi1

小偷將道門偷偷哋開。

The thief opens the door secretly.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounAdverbVerb
Words in sentence小偷道門偷偷哋

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

Using cognate object with 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese grammar

You can review cognate object(同指賓語)at Unit 2 Lesson 14.

go2 go3 siu2 pang4 jau5 soeng2 zoeng1 bun2 syu1 tai2 saam1 ci3

嗰個小朋友想將本書睇三次。

That kid want to read the book thrice.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence嗰個小朋友將本書睇三次

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head小朋友

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Cognate object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/本書三次

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Cognate object 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

go2 go3 si6 jing3 zoeng1 zoeng1 toi2 maat3 jat1 maat3

嗰個侍應將張枱抹一抹。

That waiter wipes the desk once.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Cognate object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence嗰個侍應張枱一抹

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head侍應

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

lou5 si1 zoeng1 di1 hok6 saang1 fat6 zo2 saam1 jat6

老師將啲學生罰咗三日。

The teacher has punished those students for three days.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix 2Cognate object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence老師啲學生三日

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head學生

 

Cognate Object 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

ngo5 zoeng1 keoi5 sek3 zo2 jat1 daam6

我將佢惜咗一啖。

I have kissed him once.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix 2Cognate object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence一啖

 

Cognate Object 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

Using indirect object with 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese grammar

hok6 saang1 zoeng1 keoi5 fan6 gung1 fo3 bei2 lou5 si1

學生將佢份功課畀老師。

The student gives (hands in) his homework to the teacher.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Indirect object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence學生佢份功課老師

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢份
Head功課

 

nei5 aa3 maa1 zoeng1 nei5 gin6 lau1 bei2 ngo5

你阿媽將你件褸畀我。

Your mum gives me your jacket.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Indirect object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence你阿媽你件褸

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head阿媽

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier你件
Head

Using complement with 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese grammar

Complement(補語)and predicative-complement(謂補式)will be introduced in Unit 10.

keoi5 zoeng1 zek3 dip6 dit3 laan6 zo2

佢將隻碟跌爛咗。

He has dropped and shattered the dish.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClausePredicative suffix
Words in sentence隻碟跌爛

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

gung1 jan4 wui5 zoeng1 bou6 ce1 wai4 sau1 hou2

工人會將部車維修好。

The worker will repair the car. (Literal meaning: the worker will repair the car until it reaches a good condition.)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence工人將部車維修好

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounClause
Words in sentence/部車維修好

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/維修

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 89-91, 409

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