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U4L3 Cantonese grammar 晒 [saai3]

 

In this lesson, the grammar of 晒 [saai3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  晒[saai3] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾).  When 晒 [saai3] is used after a verb(動詞), it indicates something has been done completely and it is out of the expectation of the speaker; when it is used after an adjective, it indicates the thing being described by adjective moves to an opposite and contrasting direction from its original condition.

Usage 1 of 晒 [saai3] in Cantonese grammar

Predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)晒 [saai3] can be used to indicate something has been done completely and it is out of the expectation of the speaker.  The object of the sentence under this usage has to be divisible; it is indicating the subject of the sentence has done something completely and it is out of the expectation of the speaker.

Keoi5 sik6 saai3 loeng5 go3 ping4 gwo2

佢食晒兩個蘋果。

He/She has eaten all two apples.

(Two apples are divisible; there are three possible outcomes implied by this sentence: not eating, eating 1 apple and eating 2 apples.  The subject of the sentence has decided to do that action completely, eating all apples, which is out of the expectation of the speaker)

 

Keoi5 sik6 saai3 jat1 go3 ping4 gwo2

佢食晒一個蘋果。(Incorrect)

(An apple is not divisible; there are two possible outcomes implied by this sentence: not eating and eating the apple.  This sentence is wrong because even if the subject decided to eat the apple, that action is not out of the expectation of the speaker.)

 

Keoi5 sik6 saai3 sing4 go3 ping4 gwo2

佢食晒成個蘋果。(Correct)

He/She has eaten a whole apple.

(An apple is divisible; there are many possible outcomes implied by this sentence: eating 0% of the apple, eating a certain percentage of the apple and eating 100% of the apple.  This sentence is correct because the subject of the sentence has decided to do that action completely, eating a whole apple, which is out of the expectation of the speaker)

Ngo5 jat1 zou2 ji5 ging1 zou6 saai3 so2 jau5 gung1 fo3

我一早已經做晒所有功課。

I have already done all the homework.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence一早; 已經所有功課

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier所有
Head功課

 

Ngo5 ji5 ging1 sai2 saai3 di1 wun2

我已經洗晒啲碗。

I have already washed all the dishes. (Notice 碗 is used instead of 碟 when you want to say washing dishes in Cantonese.  Literally it means “washing bowls”)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence已經啲碗

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Keoi5 ji5 ging1 sai2 saai3 keoi5 fan6 jan4 gung1

佢已經使晒佢份人工。

He/She has already spent all of his/her salary.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence已經使佢份人工

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢份
Head人工

 

Keoi5 sik6 saai3 uk1 kei2 ge3 ling4 sik6

佢食晒屋企嘅零食。

He/She has eaten all of the snacks available at home.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence屋企嘅零食

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier屋企
Head零食

 

Usage 2 of 晒 [saai3] in Cantonese grammar

晒[saai3] can also be used after an adjective(形容詞); it would convey a meaning that the status of the thing being described by the adjective has to be a change to an opposite and contrasting direction from its original condition.  You cannot use any adverb to intensify the adjective as it has been already emphasized by 晒.

Di1 faan6 ji5 ging1 dung3 saai3

啲飯已經凍晒。

The meal has become cold.  (The meal changed from hot to cold)

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffix
Part of speechNounAdverbAdjectivePredicative suffix
Words in sentence啲飯已經

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

uk1 kei2 ge3 din6 hei3 cyun4 bou6 waai6 saai3

屋企嘅電器全部壞晒。

All electric appliance at home have malfunctioned.  (The electric appliance changed from performing normally to malfunctioning)

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffix
Part of speechNounAdverbAdjectivePredicative suffix
Words in sentence屋企嘅電器全部

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier屋企
Head電器

 

Keoi5 ge3 sing4 zik1 caa1 saai3

佢嘅成績差晒。

His/her grade has become bad.  (His/her grade changed from performing well to performing badly)

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffix
Part of speechNounAdjectivePredicative suffix
Words in sentence佢嘅成績

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head成績

Reference

  1. 鄧思穎(2017)。粤語語法講義。香港:商務印書館,頁 105-111

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