U4L5 Cantonese grammar 親 [can1]

In this lesson, the grammar of predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾) 親 [can1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Predicative suffix 親 [can1] is used to indicate an action would lead to a same consequence whenever it is carried out; the consequence is usually but not necessary negative.  親 [can1] can only be used when that action has happened repeatedly and still led to the same consequence.

Whenever 親 [can1] is being used, it is used in the complex sentences(偏正句), which the sentence containing 親 has to be followed by another sentence.  Under that structure, the first half containing 親 is to indicate the time for the second half to take place; it is similar to what you have learnt previously in Unit 2 Lesson 7 that uses 時候[si4 hau6] as the subject to indicate the time for the rest of the sentence to take place.  The meaning of 親 can be further divided into the followings.

Usage 1 of 親 [can1] in Cantonese grammar

親[can1] can be used to indicate something would happen immediately when something has been done.  Under this usage, adverb 就[zau6] is usually used in the predicate clause, as it means “immediately”.

Ngo5 co5 can1 ce1 zau6 tau4 wan4

我坐親車就頭暈。

I will have car-sickness whenever I take a car.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Complex sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown True
Words in sentence 我坐親車 就頭暈

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 頭暈

 

keoi5 jam2 can1 zau2 zau6 wui5 jau5 man5 gam2

佢飲親酒就會有敏感。

He will have allergic reaction whenever he drinks.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Complex sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown True
Words in sentence 佢飲親酒 就會有敏感

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech / Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence / 有敏感

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 敏感

Usage 2 of 親 [can1] in Cantonese grammar

親[can1] can also be used to indicate something would happen whenever something has been done.  Under this usage, adverb 都[dou1] and 就[zau6] is usually used in predicate clause.  The 就 here does not mean immediately here; it means that something would happen when the condition is met.

keoi5 jam2 can1 zau2 zau6 zeoi3

佢飲親酒就醉。

He will get drunk whenever he drinks.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Complex sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown True
Words in sentence 佢飲親酒 就醉

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence /

 

ngo5 aa3 baa4 co5 can1 fei1 gei1 zau6 au2

我阿爸坐親飛機就嘔。

My dad would vomit whenever he takes a plane.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Complex sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown True
Words in sentence 我阿爸坐親飛機 就嘔

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 我阿爸 飛機

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 阿爸

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Adverb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

keoi5 bok1 can1 je5 dou1 m4 wui5 jung6 on1 cyun4 tou3

佢扑親嘢都唔會用安全套。

He will not use condom whenever he has sex.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Complex sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown True
Words in sentence 佢扑親嘢 都唔會用安全套

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech / Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence / 都; 唔 用安全套

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 安全套

 

ngo5 dei6 heoi3 can1 jam2 caa4 dou1 wui5 giu3 caa1 siu1 baau1

我哋去親飲茶都會叫叉燒包。

We will order caa siu baau whenever we go to a Chinese restaurant for Dim Sum.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Complex sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown True
Words in sentence 我哋去親飲茶 都會叫叉燒包

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 我哋 飲茶

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech / Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence / 叫叉燒包

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 叉燒包

Reference

  1. 鄧思穎(2017)。粤語語法講義。香港:商務印書館,頁 111-112

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