U3L4 Cantonese grammar 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3] in Cantonese will be introduced.

Grammar of preposition 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] in Cantonese

根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] are used to indicate something is done according to something.  These two words have an overlapped part of speech and they can be verb(動詞)and preposition(介詞).  When they are used as the first predicate in predicative expression in series(連謂式), they are preposition.

These two words are usually used to form a clause that acts as a subject of a sentence.  You can review how to use a clause as the sentence subject in Unit 2 Lesson 1.

gan1 geoi3 hoeng1 gong2 faat3 lai6 hai2 sat1 noi6 sik6 jin1 hai6 faan6 faat3 ge3 haang3 wai4

根據香港法例,喺室內食煙係犯法嘅行為。

According to the law of Hong Kong, smoking indoor is a legal offense.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Clause Sentence
Words in sentence 根據香港法例 喺室內食煙係犯法嘅行為

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Preposition Noun
Words in sentence / 根據 香港法例

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Clause Linking verb Noun
Words in sentence 喺室內食煙 犯法嘅行為

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Preposition Noun
Words in sentence / 室內食煙

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 犯法
Head 行為

 

gan1 geoi3 keoi5 si6 faan6 ge3 zyu2 faat3 ngo5 dei6 ji1 gaa1 jiu3 lok6 jau4

根據佢示範嘅煮法,我哋依家要落油。

According to his demonstrated way of cooking, we should pour in oil now.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Clause Sentence
Words in sentence 根據佢示範嘅煮法 我哋依家要落油

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Preposition Noun
Words in sentence / 根據 佢示範嘅煮法

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 佢示範
Head 煮法

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我哋 依家 落油

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

ji1 ziu3 ni1 dou6 ge3 kwai1 geoi2 nei5 dei6 m4 ho2 ji5 caam1 gaa1 ni1 go3 bei2 coi3

依照呢度嘅規矩,你哋唔可以參加呢個比賽。

According to the rule here, you cannot participate in this competition.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Clause Sentence
Words in sentence 依照呢度嘅規矩 你哋唔可以參加呢個比賽

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Preposition Noun
Words in sentence / 依照 呢度嘅規矩

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 呢度
Head 規矩

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 你哋 可以 參加呢個比賽

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 參加 呢個比賽

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 呢個
Head 比賽

Grammar of preposition 跟住 [gan1 zyu6] and 照住 [ziu3 zyu6] in Cantonese

跟住 [gan1 zyu6] and 照住 [ziu3 zyu6] are prepositions that possess similar meaning with 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3].  Nevertheless, these prepositions are usually used as the first predicate in the structure of predicative expression in series(連謂式)and they are rarely used to form a clause that would act as the subject of a sentence.

Nei5 jiu3 gan1 zyu6 syut3 ming4 syu1 cai3 mou4 jing4

你要跟住說明書砌模型。

You have to build figures according to manual.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Clause
Words in sentence 跟住說明書砌模型

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 跟住 說明書 模型

 

Ngo5 ziu3 zyu6 sik6 pou2 zyu2 gan2 gu1 lou1 juk6

我照住食譜煮𡁵咕嚕肉。

I am cooking sweet and sour pork by following the recipe.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Predicative suffix Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 照住 食譜 𡁵 咕嚕肉

 

go2 go3 siu2 pang4 jau5 gan1 zyu6 ngo5 gong2 je5

嗰個小朋友跟住我講嘢。

That kid speaks after me.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 嗰個小朋友 跟住

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head 小朋友

 

ging2 caat3 gan1 geoi3 hoeng1 gong2 faat3 lai6 keoi1 bou6 zo2 go2 go3 jan4

警察根據香港法例拘捕咗嗰個人。

Police has arrested that man according to the law of Hong Kong.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Predicative suffix Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 警察 根據 香港法例 拘捕 嗰個人

 

Object 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 408

That’s it for this lesson on the grammar of 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3] in Cantonese!  If you appreciate our work, sign up now and give us a LikeCoin by clicking the LikeCoin button below 5 times.  It will empower us to create more useful contents for you in the future!

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

English