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U3L4 Cantonese grammar 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3] in Cantonese will be introduced.

Grammar of preposition 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] in Cantonese

根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] are used to indicate something is done according to something.  These two words have an overlapped part of speech and they can be verb(動詞)and preposition(介詞).  When they are used as the first predicate in predicative expression in series(連謂式), they are preposition.

These two words are usually used to form a clause that acts as a subject of a sentence.  You can review how to use a clause as the sentence subject in Unit 2 Lesson 1.

gan1 geoi3 hoeng1 gong2 faat3 lai6 hai2 sat1 noi6 sik6 jin1 hai6 faan6 faat3 ge3 haang3 wai4

根據香港法例,喺室內食煙係犯法嘅行為。

According to the law of Hong Kong, smoking indoor is a legal offense.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechClauseSentence
Words in sentence根據香港法例喺室內食煙係犯法嘅行為

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/根據香港法例

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechClauseLinking verbNoun
Words in sentence喺室內食煙犯法嘅行為

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/室內食煙

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier犯法
Head行為

 

gan1 geoi3 keoi5 si6 faan6 ge3 zyu2 faat3 ngo5 dei6 ji1 gaa1 jiu3 lok6 jau4

根據佢示範嘅煮法,我哋依家要落油。

According to his demonstrated way of cooking, we should pour in oil now.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechClauseSentence
Words in sentence根據佢示範嘅煮法我哋依家要落油

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/根據佢示範嘅煮法

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢示範
Head煮法

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋依家落油

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

ji1 ziu3 ni1 dou6 ge3 kwai1 geoi2 nei5 dei6 m4 ho2 ji5 caam1 gaa1 ni1 go3 bei2 coi3

依照呢度嘅規矩,你哋唔可以參加呢個比賽。

According to the rule here, you cannot participate in this competition.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechClauseSentence
Words in sentence依照呢度嘅規矩你哋唔可以參加呢個比賽

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/PrepositionNoun
Words in sentence/依照呢度嘅規矩

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢度
Head規矩

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence你哋可以參加呢個比賽

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/參加呢個比賽

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢個
Head比賽

Grammar of preposition 跟住 [gan1 zyu6] and 照住 [ziu3 zyu6] in Cantonese

跟住 [gan1 zyu6] and 照住 [ziu3 zyu6] are prepositions that possess similar meaning with 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3].  Nevertheless, these prepositions are usually used as the first predicate in the structure of predicative expression in series(連謂式)and they are rarely used to form a clause that would act as the subject of a sentence.

Nei5 jiu3 gan1 zyu6 syut3 ming4 syu1 cai3 mou4 jing4

你要跟住說明書砌模型。

You have to build figures according to manual.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbClause
Words in sentence跟住說明書砌模型

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/跟住說明書模型

 

Ngo5 ziu3 zyu6 sik6 pou2 zyu2 gan2 gu1 lou1 juk6

我照住食譜煮𡁵咕嚕肉。

I am cooking sweet and sour pork by following the recipe.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffixObject 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence照住食譜𡁵咕嚕肉

 

go2 go3 siu2 pang4 jau5 gan1 zyu6 ngo5 gong2 je5

嗰個小朋友跟住我講嘢。

That kid speaks after me.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence嗰個小朋友跟住

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head小朋友

 

ging2 caat3 gan1 geoi3 hoeng1 gong2 faat3 lai6 keoi1 bou6 zo2 go2 go3 jan4

警察根據香港法例拘捕咗嗰個人。

Police has arrested that man according to the law of Hong Kong.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffixObject 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence警察根據香港法例拘捕嗰個人

 

Object 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 408

That’s it for this lesson on the grammar of 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3] in Cantonese!  If you appreciate our work, sign up now and give us a LikeCoin by clicking the LikeCoin button below 5 times.  It will empower us to create more useful contents for you in the future!

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