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U12L3 Cantonese grammar 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] are used to restrict predicate(謂語), object(賓語), cognate object(同指賓語)and adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] cannot be used to restrict subject(主語)of a sentence. Due to how flexible 咋 [zaa3] and 喳…

U10L10 Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)

Introduction Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)is a type of complement that cannot be separated from the rest of the sentence with a punctuation(標點符號)or a particle(助詞); you should not make any pause between the bound phrase complement and the rest of the sentence in speaking. There are several words that can be used in bound phrase complement with…

U10L9 Recovery complement(回復補語)

Being similar with potential complement(能性補語), recovery complement(回復補語)is created by inserting 翻[faan1] in between the predicate(謂語)and the complement(補語)of a sentence that structured according to predicative-complement(謂補式).  The 翻[faan1] here does not have any part of speech. Recovery complement can be used to indicate something returns to its original location or state as the consequence of an action.…

U8L12 Cantonese grammar 㗎 [gaa3/ gaa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞)  㗎 [gaa3/ gaa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Back in Unit 2 Lesson 4, you have learnt using 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式); you have also learnt using particle(助詞)啊[aa3] in Unit 8 Lesson 5 and particle 呀[aa4] in Unit 8 Lesson 6. When the head(端語)of subordination is being omitted due…

U10L8 Potential complement(能性補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of creating potential complement(能性補語)with 得[dak1] will be introduced.  Potential complement is a complement that indicates something is possible to happen or it is allowed to be done.  Unlike any other complement(補語)that you have learnt previously, potential complement is created by inserting 得[dak1] in between the predicate(謂語)and the…

U2L16 Contraction related with 嘅[ge3]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, contraction related with 嘅[ge3] will be introduced.  Since Unit 2 Lesson 5, we have learnt how to use 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式)to modify a noun(名詞); in Unit 1 Lesson 2, we have also learnt how to use 係[hai6] to indicate the subject(主語)equals with the object(賓語)based on subject-predicative(主謂式).  When we are…

U6L7 Adverb 先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] and 就[zau6]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the difference between adverb(副詞)先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] and 就[zau6]will be introduced.  Both adverb 就[zau6] and 先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] are used to indicate the consequence or the following action of a condition; you should use these two adverbs whenever you are making a clause of condition(條件句)in the structure of…

U8L11 Cantonese grammar 呢 [ne1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 呢 [ne1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  In general, 呢 [ne1] is a particle for directing focus towards a subject that is different from previous statements.  呢 [ne1] can be used in an exclamation sentence(感嘆句)and an interrogative sentence(疑問句).  Do not confuse particle 呢 [ne1] with demonstrative determinatives(指示性代詞)呢 [ni1].…

U10L6 Directional complement(方向補語)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, directional complement(方向補語)will be introduced.  Directional complement is a type of complement that indicates the direction of an action.  There are 3 categories of directional complement.  As each category has different properties and they can be combined based on a certain pattern, you should memorize which category does each directional…

U10L5 Complement of extent(程度補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, complement of extent(程度補語)will be introduced.  Complement of extent(程度補語)are used to describe the extent of an action or a state.  Whenever this complement is used, 到[dou3], which does not have any part of speech, has to be attached right after the predicate.  Many crazy and exaggerating metaphors in Cantonese are…

U8L10 Cantonese grammar 先 [sin1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 先 [sin1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 先 [sin1] can be used as a particle or an adverb(副詞).  As a particle, despite its meanings would change slightly depending on the type of sentence used with it, they are still circling around "doing something first"; 先 [sin1] can…

U10L4 Descriptive complement(描寫補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, descriptive complement(描寫補語)will be introduced.  Descriptive complement(描寫補語)is used to describe the status or the result of the action.  In order to use this complement, 得 [dak1], which does not have any part of speech, has to be attached right after the verb.  There are 4 possible structures for using descriptive…

U7L8 Cantonese grammar 好過 [hou2 gwo3]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 好過 [hou2 gwo3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  好過[hou2 gwo3] is a particle for persuading the listener by saying something is better than something else.  As particle 好過[hou2 gwo3] is created by combining adjective(形容詞)好[hou2] and phase complement(狀態補語)過[gwo3] together, its meaning is the combination of those two words. Rules…

U10L3 Intensifying complement(強化補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, intensifying complement(強化補語)死[sei2] and  透[tau3] will be introduced.  Intensifying complement is used for exaggerating a verb or an adjective; the translation of a sentence using intensifying complement is more or less the same with a sentence that uses adverbial(狀語)to exaggerate. ngo5 hou2 hoi1 sam1 我好開心。(Adverbial) I am very happy. ngo5…

U10L2 Phase complement(狀態補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, phase complement(狀態補語)will be introduced.  Phase complement(狀態補語)is used to represent a few special states achieved by the predicate and it can only be created with the following 4 words.  These words do not have any part of speech and their usages are completely independent. Phase complements Usages 着[zoek6] To indicate…

U8L9 Cantonese grammar 嘅 [ge2]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 嘅 [ge2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  嘅 [ge2] is used for asking why in Cantonese. 嘅 [ge2] is used in specified interrogative sentences(特指問句) and it can only be used with interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞)點解 [dim2 gaai2] and 做乜 [zou6 mat1].  Do not confuse this 嘅 [ge2] with 嘅 [ge3],…

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