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U12L3 Cantonese grammar 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] are used to restrict predicate(謂語), object(賓語), cognate object(同指賓語)and adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] cannot be used to restrict subject(主語)of a sentence. Due to how flexible 咋 [zaa3] and 喳…

U10L10 Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)

Introduction Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)is a type of complement that cannot be separated from the rest of the sentence with a punctuation(標點符號)or a particle(助詞); you should not make any pause between the bound phrase complement and the rest of the sentence in speaking. There are several words that can be used in bound phrase complement with…

U10L9 Recovery complement(回復補語)

Being similar with potential complement(能性補語), recovery complement(回復補語)is created by inserting 翻[faan1] in between the predicate(謂語)and the complement(補語)of a sentence that structured according to predicative-complement(謂補式).  The 翻[faan1] here does not have any part of speech. Recovery complement can be used to indicate something returns to its original location or state as the consequence of an action.…

U8L12 Cantonese grammar 㗎 [gaa3/ gaa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞)  㗎 [gaa3/ gaa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Back in Unit 2 Lesson 4, you have learnt using 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式); you have also learnt using particle(助詞)啊[aa3] in Unit 8 Lesson 5 and particle 呀[aa4] in Unit 8 Lesson 6. When the head(端語)of subordination is being omitted due…

U10L8 Potential complement(能性補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of creating potential complement(能性補語)with 得[dak1] will be introduced.  Potential complement is a complement that indicates something is possible to happen or it is allowed to be done.  Unlike any other complement(補語)that you have learnt previously, potential complement is created by inserting 得[dak1] in between the predicate(謂語)and the…

U2L16 Contraction related with 嘅[ge3]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, contraction related with 嘅[ge3] will be introduced.  Since Unit 2 Lesson 5, we have learnt how to use 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式)to modify a noun(名詞); in Unit 1 Lesson 2, we have also learnt how to use 係[hai6] to indicate the subject(主語)equals with the object(賓語)based on subject-predicative(主謂式).  When we are…

U6L7 Adverb 先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] and 就[zau6]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the difference between adverb(副詞)先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] and 就[zau6]will be introduced.  Both adverb 就[zau6] and 先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] are used to indicate the consequence or the following action of a condition; you should use these two adverbs whenever you are making a clause of condition(條件句)in the structure of…

U8L11 Cantonese grammar 呢 [ne1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 呢 [ne1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  In general, 呢 [ne1] is a particle for directing focus towards a subject that is different from previous statements.  呢 [ne1] can be used in an exclamation sentence(感嘆句)and an interrogative sentence(疑問句).  Do not confuse particle 呢 [ne1] with demonstrative determinatives(指示性代詞)呢 [ni1].…

U10L6 Directional complement(方向補語)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, directional complement(方向補語)will be introduced.  Directional complement is a type of complement that indicates the direction of an action.  There are 3 categories of directional complement.  As each category has different properties and they can be combined based on a certain pattern, you should memorize which category does each directional…

U10L5 Complement of extent(程度補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, complement of extent(程度補語)will be introduced.  Complement of extent(程度補語)are used to describe the extent of an action or a state.  Whenever this complement is used, 到[dou3], which does not have any part of speech, has to be attached right after the predicate.  Many crazy and exaggerating metaphors in Cantonese are…

U8L10 Cantonese grammar 先 [sin1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 先 [sin1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 先 [sin1] can be used as a particle or an adverb(副詞).  As a particle, despite its meanings would change slightly depending on the type of sentence used with it, they are still circling around "doing something first"; 先 [sin1] can…

U10L4 Descriptive complement(描寫補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, descriptive complement(描寫補語)will be introduced.  Descriptive complement(描寫補語)is used to describe the status or the result of the action.  In order to use this complement, 得 [dak1], which does not have any part of speech, has to be attached right after the verb.  There are 4 possible structures for using descriptive…

U7L8 Cantonese grammar 好過 [hou2 gwo3]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 好過 [hou2 gwo3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  好過[hou2 gwo3] is a particle for persuading the listener by saying something is better than something else.  As particle 好過[hou2 gwo3] is created by combining adjective(形容詞)好[hou2] and phase complement(狀態補語)過[gwo3] together, its meaning is the combination of those two words. Rules…

U10L3 Intensifying complement(強化補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, intensifying complement(強化補語)死[sei2] and  透[tau3] will be introduced.  Intensifying complement is used for exaggerating a verb or an adjective; the translation of a sentence using intensifying complement is more or less the same with a sentence that uses adverbial(狀語)to exaggerate. ngo5 hou2 hoi1 sam1 我好開心。(Adverbial) I am very happy. ngo5…

U10L2 Phase complement(狀態補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, phase complement(狀態補語)will be introduced.  Phase complement(狀態補語)is used to represent a few special states achieved by the predicate and it can only be created with the following 4 words.  These words do not have any part of speech and their usages are completely independent. Phase complements Usages 着[zoek6] To indicate…

U8L9 Cantonese grammar 嘅 [ge2]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 嘅 [ge2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  嘅 [ge2] is used for asking why in Cantonese. 嘅 [ge2] is used in specified interrogative sentences(特指問句) and it can only be used with interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞)點解 [dim2 gaai2] and 做乜 [zou6 mat1].  Do not confuse this 嘅 [ge2] with 嘅 [ge3],…

U8L7 Cantonese grammar 咩 [me1]

In this lesson, grammar of 咩 [me1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  咩 [me1] is a particle(助詞)and it can be used to create a rhetorical question or to show your surprise.  You can only use 咩[me1] in the yes-no question(是非問句). Usage 1 of 咩 [me1] in Cantonese grammar Particle(助詞)咩 [me1] can be used in a…

U5L8 Contraction of sentences created with 過[gwo3]

  You have learnt how to use 過[gwo3] to compare the subject and the object of a sentence with an adjective back in Unit 5 Lesson 5.  Those sentences can be shortened with the use of cognate object(同指賓語)or complement(補語).  In this lesson, contraction created with the use of cognate object will be first introduced; contraction…

U10L1 Predicative-complement(謂補式)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative-complement(謂補式)and resultative complement(結果補語)will be introduced.  Being similar with predicative expression in series(連謂式), predicative-complement is created by combining two predicates(謂語)together, with the second predicate called complement(補語).  For the difference between predicative expression in series and predicative-complement, predicative expression in series may combine more than two predicates yet predicative-complement can only…

U8L6 Cantonese grammar 呀 [aa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 呀 [aa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Unlike the 啊 [aa3] that you have learnt in previous lesson, 呀 [aa4] can only be used in yes-no question(是非問句). Grammar of using 呀 [aa4] in Cantonese Particle 呀 [aa4] is used to ask the listener confirming a statement, as the…

U8L5 Cantonese grammar 啊 [aa3]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 啊 [aa3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 啊 [aa3] is used to soften a sentence; it can be used to soften interrogative sentences(疑問句), imperative sentences(祈使句)and descriptive sentences(陳述句).  Since particle 啊 [aa3] can be used in all kind of sentences, it is the particle with highest frequency in…

U8L4 Affirmative-negative question(正反問句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, affirmative-negative question(正反問句)will be introduced.  Affirmative-negative question(正反問句)is actually a disjunctive question(選擇問句)that offers the positive and the negative side of an action instead of offering two different options; it is asking the listener to choose either the positive or the negative side of that action. nei5 ting3 jat6 soeng2 m4 soeng2…

U9L1 Pivotal construction(兼語式)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, pivotal construction(兼語式)will be introduced.  Basically, pivotal construction is created by connecting a sentence in predicative-object(謂賓式)with a sentence in subject-predicative(主謂式)or in predicative-object again.  The noun that serves as the object of the first predicate and the subject of the second predicate is called pivot(兼語). Combination patterns of pivotal construction Pattern…

U8L3 Yes-no question(是非問句)

In this lesson, yes-no question(是非問句)will be introduced.  Unlike other interrogative sentences(疑問句), Yes-no question(是非問句)is a type of question that is created simply by using a particle(助詞)in the end of a sentence; you don't need and you cannot use any interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞)in a yes-no question.  As you have not learnt about particles that can be used in…

U8L2 Disjunctive question(選擇問句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, disjunctive question(選擇問句)will be introduced.  Disjunctive question(選擇問句)is created by combining two or more sentences into one according to the structure of compound sentences(並列句)and it is asking for listener's choice between those provided options.  You can revise compound sentences in Unit 6 Lesson 2.  The following words are used to connect two…

U8L1 Specified Interrogative sentences(特指問句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, interrogative sentences(疑問句)and specified interrogative sentences(特指問句)will be introduced.  In Cantonese, there are four types of interrogative sentences(疑問句)and they are created in a different structure. Types of Interrogative sentence Specified Interrogative sentences(特指問句) Disjunctive question(選擇問句)   Yes-no question(是非問句)   Affirmative-negative question(正反問句)   Specified interrogative sentences(特指問句) Specified interrogative sentences are created by inserting…

U6L5 Because and but in Cantonese 但係 [daan6 hai6];因為 [jan1 wai6]

In this lesson, conjunctions(連詞) meaning because and but in Cantonese will be introduced. But in Cantonese: 但係 [daan6 hai6], 不過 [bat1 gwo3], 之不過 [zi1 bat1 gwo3] and 之但係 [zi1 daan6 hai6] The following conjunctions mean but in Cantonese. But in Cantonese 但係[daan6 hai6] 不過[bat1 gwo3] 之不過[zi1 bat1 gwo3] 之但係[zi1 daan6 hai6] When using these conjunctions…

U6L4 Complex sentence(偏正句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, complex sentences(偏正句)will be introduced.  Complex sentences are composite sentences(複句)that one of its component sentence does not possess any true value(真假值)(i.e. unknown).  The usage of complex sentences can be divided into the followings: Usages of complex sentences Usage 1 Clauses of Condition(條件句) To use the sentence with unknown true value…

U6L3 Correlative conjunction(相關連詞)Part I

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, correlative conjunctions(相關連詞)will be introduced.  Correlative conjunctions are created by using adverbial conjunctions(副詞性連詞)or conjunctions(連詞)together or by repeating itself in a sentence; conjunction is placed before the subject of a sentence and adverbial conjunction is placed after the subject of a sentence like an adverb(副詞).  In this lesson, correlative conjunctions that…

U6L2 Composite sentence(複句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, composite sentence(複句)and compound sentences(並列句)will be introduced.  Composite sentence(複句)is referring to a sentence that is created by combining two or more sentences together.  In Cantonese, composite sentence can be divided as the following 3 types.  Each type of composite sentence has a set of specific usages associated with it.  It…

U7L6 Cantonese grammar 罷啦 [baa2 laa1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 罷啦 [baa2 laa1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  罷啦 [baa2 laa1] is a particle with two syllables.  The rules for using 罷啦 is very strict.  First of all, the subject of sentence described by 罷啦 has to be a human that can do something consciously. Secondly, the predicate…

U6L1 And in Cantonese

In this lesson, And in Cantonese will be introduced.  Prepositional conjunction(介詞性連詞) 同 [tung4], 同埋 [tung4 maai4] and 夾埋 [gaap3 maai4] means And in Cantonese.  Unlike conjunction(連詞), which connects two or more clauses or sentences together and form a complex sentence(複句), prepositional conjunction connects two nouns together in the structure of coordination(並列式). And in Cantonese:同 [tung4]、同埋…

U7L5 Cantonese grammar 噃 [bo3]

In this lesson, the grammar of 噃 [bo3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  噃[bo3] is a particle(助詞)that can be used in imperative sentence(祈使句)for providing advices or opinions or it can be used to show your realization on something you did not know previously. Usage 1 of 噃 [bo3] in Cantonese grammar 噃[bo3] is used to…

U7L4 Cantonese grammar 喎 [wo3/wo4/wo5]

In this lesson, the grammar of 喎 [wo3/wo4/wo5] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle(助詞)喎 [wo3/wo4/wo5] can only be used in imperative sentence(祈使句).  It is used to make a suggestion indirectly by restating a fact that the speakers have previously seen, heard, felt or experienced.  The meanings of 喎 would change depending on its tone and…

U7L3 Cantonese grammar 啦 [laa1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞)and particle 啦 [laa1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  What is particle in Cantonese? Particle(助詞)is always located at the very end of a sentence and independent from all sentence structure.  It is the most difficult grammar concept for foreigner to master due to its complexity and the need of…

U7L2 Cantonese grammar 好 [hou2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 好 [hou2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Since Unit 1 Lesson 3, we have been using 好 [hou2] as an adverb(副詞), yet it can be used as an auxiliary verb(助動詞)too.  Its meaning is similar with 應該 [jing1 goi1] and they are interchangeable in following example sentences.  When 好 is…

U4L6 Cantonese grammar 吓 [haa5]

In this lesson, the grammar of 吓 [haa5] in Cantonese will be introduced.  吓 [haa5] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)that indicates an action has been done for a very short period of time, to a small extent or in a low frequency.  It is commonly used in imperative sentence(祈使句)and interrogative sentence(疑問句)to downplay the suggestion or the…

U4L5 Cantonese grammar 親 [can1]

In this lesson, the grammar of predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾) 親 [can1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Predicative suffix 親 [can1] is used to indicate an action would lead to a same consequence whenever it is carried out; the consequence is usually but not necessary negative.  親 [can1] can only be used when that action has happened…

U4L4 Predicative suffix 過[gwo3]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)過[gwo3] will be introduced.  You have already learnt that 過[gwo3] can be used as a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾) for indicating experiencing something in Unit 1 Lesson 10.  Nevertheless, 過 can also be used to indicate an action has to be carried out again, as something undesirable happened last time…

U7L1 Imperative sentence(祈使句)

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, imperative sentence(祈使句)will be introduced.  Imperative sentence is a sentence that gives out an order or a suggestion.  There are a few rules you can follow for creating an imperative sentence.  First of all, you have to use a verb(動詞)as the predicate of that sentence and it has to be a…

U5L7 Superlative adjective 最[zeoi3]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, superlative adjective in Cantonese will be introduced.  You can indicate an adjective as a superlative adjective(最高級), which is an adjective that describe the subject at the upper or the lower limit, by adding adverb(副詞)最[zeoi3] to the sentence.  The clause or the sentence that you add 最 in has to…

U5L6 Adjective in inferior degree(低於級)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of indicating the subject is inferior than the object will be introduced.  The verb(動詞)冇[mou5] is used as the predicate to indicate that something is inferior comparing with something else by using an adjective(形容詞). Keoi5 mou5 nei5 gam3 mung4 caa4 caa4 佢冇你咁蒙查查。 He is not as dumb as…

U5L5 Adjectives in superior degree(比較級)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of comparing two nouns with adjective in Cantonese will be explained.  過[gwo3] is a phase complement(狀態補語)and it is used in the structure of predicative-complement(謂補式)to compare the subject and the object.  A more in-depth explanation on predicative-complement(謂補式)and phase complement(狀態補語)is available in Unit 10 Lesson 1 and Unit 10…

U5L4 Adjectives in equal degree(相等級)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, you will learn how to express a meaning which something is in an equal degree with something else with an adjective.  To create such meaning, you have to use adverb 一樣[jat1 joeng6] and 咁[gam3] as the adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 一樣 means the same and 咁 is a pro-adverb(代副詞)for indicating…

U3L10 Cantonese grammar 好似 [hou2 ci5]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞)好似 [hou2 ci5] in Cantonese will be introduced.  好似 [hou2 ci5] is a word with overlapped classes and it can be used as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞). Grammar of using 好似 [hou2 ci5] as a verb in Cantonese When 好似 [hou2 ci5] is used as a verb, it means…

U5L3 Pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs(代副詞、代形容詞、代動詞)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs will be introduced.  Pronoun are used to substitute a noun or a noun phrase.  For pro-adverb(代副詞), pro-adjective(代形容詞)and pro-verb(代動詞), they are used to substitute adverb(副詞), adjective(形容詞)and verb(動詞)respectively.  The meaning of these words are depending on the context and they can be roughly translated as “like that”.…

U5L1 Adverb(副詞)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of using adverb(副詞)will be introduced.  In Cantonese, adverb(副詞)can be used to as the adverbial(狀語)to describe the predicate(謂語)when a noun, an adjective or a verb is used as the predicate; adverb can also be used as the subject(主語)to describe the predicate when a clause or a complete sentence…

U4L1 Cantonese grammar 開 [hoi1]

In this lesson, grammar of 開 [hoi1] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of 開 [hoi1] 開 [hoi1] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)that indicates an action is used to be done by the subject(主語).  Similar with other predicative suffix, 開 [hoi1] is used after the predicate and it cannot be used with any other predicative suffix…

U2L15 To describe transient words(過渡詞)

Introduction As we have learnt in previous lessons, determinatives(定詞)are used to modify a noun.  Nevertheless, they can be modified too, according to the structure of subordination(偏正式).  Words that are described by determinatives is called transient words(過渡詞) and they can be further modified.  In this lesson, we are going to learn using nouns, verbs, adjectives and full…

U3L9 Cantonese grammar 為咗 [wai6 zo2]

In this lesson, grammar of preposition(介詞)為咗 [wai6 zo2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  為咗[wai6 zo2] is a preposition and it is used to indicate something is done for somebody or something; the 咗[zo2] of 為咗 is not the predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)咗[zo2]. Using 為咗 [wai6 zo2] in Cantonese grammar Again, 為咗 [wai6 zo2] follows all the rules…

U3L7 Cantonese grammar 將 [zoeng1]

In this lesson, the grammar of 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Preposition(介詞)將 [zoeng1] can only be used as the first predicate in the predicative expression in series (連謂式)for moving the second object before the second predicate.  Although this grammar was adopted from Mandarin and it has no specific meaning in Cantonese now, it…

U3L6 Cantonese grammar 用 [jung6] and 靠 [kaau3]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 用 [jung6] and 靠 [kaau3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  According to the usage 1 of predicative expression in series(連謂式), the first predicate(謂語)in the structure can be used to describe the manner or the mean for carrying out an action in the second predicate.  For describing the manner…

U3L5 Cantonese grammar 畀 [bei2] and 由 [jau4]

In this lesson, Cantonese grammar of 畀 [bei2] and 由 [jau4] will be introduced.  These two prepositions(介詞)are very important, as they are used for creating passive voice sentences in Cantonese.  Study this lesson carefully until you feel confident in using them. Grammar of 畀 [bei2] 畀[bei2] can be functioned as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞).  When…

U3L4 Cantonese grammar 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of preposition 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] in Cantonese 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] are used to indicate something is done according to something.  These…

U3L3 Cantonese grammar 同 [tung4] and 幫 [bong1]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 同 [tung4] and 幫 [bong1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  同 [tung4] can be used as a conjunction(連詞)or a preposition, and their difference is extremely easy to overlook. 同 [tung4] is a preposition when it is used to connect two nouns with a different function in the sentence…

U3L2 Prepositions in predicative expression in series 喺[hai2]/ 响[hoeng2]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, preposition(介詞)will be introduced.  Despite being similar with verb(動詞), prepositions(介詞)is a type of word that can only be used in predicative expression in series(連謂式).  The following prepositions will be explained clearly in the upcoming lessons. Prepositions that can be used in predicative expression in series 喺[hai2];响[hoeng2] 同[tung4];幫[bong1] 用[jung6];靠[kaau3] 除咗[ceoi4 zo2];連[lin4]…

U3L1 Predicative expression in series(連謂式)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative expression in series(連謂式)will be introduced.  Predicative expression in series is a sentence structure created by combining two or more predicates(謂語)together.  The usages of this structure are complicated and it can be divided into the following.  As preposition(介詞)is closely related with predicative expression in series, they will be explained…

U2L14 Cantonese grammar of cognate object (同指賓語)

In this lesson, the grammar of cognate object (同指賓語)in Cantonese will be introduced.  Similar with English, verb(動詞)in Cantonese can be classified into transitive and intransitive verbs.   Transitive verbs can take an object and intransitive verbs cannot take an object but a cognate object.  Cognate object (同指賓語)is an object that can be used with intransitive verbs for indicating…

U2L13 Reference(指稱)

Introduction If a speaker is referring to a specific one when he talks about a noun, that noun possesses definite reference(確定指稱); if the speaker is not referring to a specific one but that noun in general, that noun possesses indefinite reference(不定指稱).  Basically, this concept is the same with definite (the) and indefinite (a/an) article in English…

U2L10 Specifying determinatives(特指性定詞)

Introduction Specifying determinatives(特指性定詞)are determinatives for specifying a noun(名詞).  Similar with other determinatives, you have to attach them to other words in order to use them in a sentence.  These determinatives are usually added to counters(量詞)by following the structure of subordination(偏正式). Specifying Determinative Meaning 每 [mui5] Every 各 [gok3] Each (Formal) 本 [bun2] This (Formal) 某…

U2L9 Quantitative determinatives(數量性定詞)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, quantitative determinatives(數量性定詞)will be introduced.  Quantitative determinatives are used to represent a vague estimation or an unspecific number, instead of an exact number.  Similar with other determinatives, you have to attach them to other words in order to use them in a sentence, and these determinatives are mostly added to…

U2L8 Cantonese grammar 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] are used to describe a noun and they mean this and that respectively. Grammar of 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] are demonstrative determinatives(指示性定詞), which is a type of determinative(定詞)for…

U1L10 Cantonese grammar 過 [gwo3]

In this lesson, grammar of 過 [gwo3] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of 過 [gwo3] in Cantonese 過 [gwo3] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)and it can be used to indicate that the subject had an experience of doing something. Ngo5 hok6 gwo3 gwong2 dung1 waa2 我學過廣東話。 I have learnt Cantonese before. (I had the experience…

U1L9 Cantonese grammar 咗 [zo2]

In this lesson, grammar of 咗 [zo2] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of 咗 [zo2] in Cantonese 咗 [zo2] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)and it is used to indicate an action has been completed. Ngo5 sik6 zo2 faan6 我食咗飯。 I have eaten the meal. Type of sentence structure Predicative-object Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix…

U1L8 Using a complete sentence as an object

Introduction In previous lesson, you have learnt how to use noun(名詞), verb(動詞), adjective(形容詞) and clause(分句)as an object of a sentence.  In this lesson, we are going to learn how to use a full sentence(完整句子)as an object of a sentence.   Using a full sentence as an object A full sentence is a clause that possess…

U2L7 Describing time and location(時候/地方)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, two useful nouns, 時候[si4 hau6] and 地方[dei6 fong1], will be introduced.  Both 時候[si4 hau6] means "time" and 地方[dei6 fong1] means "place".  As the subject can be used to represent the time or the place for for the predicate to happen, these two words are usually used as the subject(主語)of…

U1L4 Cantonese grammar 𡁵 [gan2]

In this lesson, the grammar of verb(動詞)and 𡁵 [gan2] in Cantonese will be introduced. Intransitive verb Being similar with English, Cantonese has a division of transitive and intransitive verb.  Structure of subject-predicative(主謂式)is used when an intransitive verb is used as predicate. Ngo5 heoi3 我去。 I go. Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative Functions in sentence Subject…

U2L6 Telling time in Cantonese

In this lesson, the way of telling time in Cantonese will be introduced.  You can tell time in Cantonese by putting numbers(數詞) in front of time words(時間詞)according to the structure of subordination(偏正式). Telling time in Cantonese with time words(時間詞) Time words Meanings 秒 [miu5] second 分鐘 [fan1 zung1] minute 點 [dim2] hour 號 [hou6] day…

U2L5 Describing the status and the features of a noun 嘅[ge3]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the usage of using 嘅[ge3] to describe the status and the feature of a noun will be introduced.  In previous lessons, we have learnt that we can use numbers(數詞)and noun(名詞)to describe a noun with 嘅[ge3] by following the structure of subordination(偏正式).  In this lesson, we are going to learn…

U1L3 Adjectives in Cantonese(形容詞)

In this lesson, adjectives (形容詞) in Cantonese will be introduced.  To use adjective to describe the subject, you can just use the adjective as the predicate, according to the structure of subject-predicative (主謂式). Using Adjectives in Cantonese ngo5 fei4 我肥。 I am fat. Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Part of…

U1L2 Cantonese grammar 係 [hai6]

Welcome to the first lesson of Cantonese grammar(廣東話文法)!  In this lesson, sentence structure subject-predicative(主謂式)and the grammar of 係 [hai6] in Cantonese will be introduced. Subject-predicative(主謂式) In Cantonese, there are 7 basic sentence structures.  In this lesson, the most basic sentence structure, subject-predicative(主謂式)will be introduced.  Only a subject(主語)and a predicate(謂語)is needed for constructing this sentence structure.…

U2L4 Cantonese grammar 嘅 [ge3] Part 1

In this lesson, the grammar of using 嘅 [ge3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  In the previous lesson, we have learnt how to use counters(量詞)and numbers(數詞)to modify and indicate the amount of a noun according to the structure of subordination(偏正式).  In this lesson, we are going learn how to use a noun to modify another…

U2L3 Subordination (偏正式)

In this lesson, ​subordination(偏正式)will be introduced.  Subordination is a structure that allows a noun(名詞)to be modified by another word.   The noun being modified is called “the head” and the modifying noun is called “the modifier”; the modifier would precede the head. Structure of subordination The modifier(修飾語) + the head(端語)   The followings are the usages…

U2L1 Cantonese grammar 喺 [hai2] and 响 [hoeng2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 喺[hai2] and 响[hoeng2] will be introduced.  The classes of 喺 are overlapped and it can be used as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞).  The difference between preposition and verb in Cantonese will be explained clearly in Unit 3 Lesson 2.  Beware that this word looks very similar with the linking…

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