bin1 zi2 gu1 noeng4

The Single Braid

Brace yourself up and learn Cantonese through Hong Kong’s urban legend.

How to say police in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say police in Cantonese with neutral connotation?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say police in Cantonese. Police in Cantonese: 警察 [ging2 caat3] Noun(名詞) 警察 [ging2 caat3] means police in Cantonese. cyun4 hoeng1 gong2 jau5 saam1 maan6 go3 ging2 caat3。 全香港有三萬個警察。 There are 30,000 police officers in Hong…

How to say friend and best friend in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say friend in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say friend and best friend in Cantonese. Friend in Cantonese: 朋友 [pang4 jau5] Noun(名詞) 朋友 [pang4 jau5] means friend in Cantonese. bin1 go3 hai6 nei5 pang4 jau5 aa3? 邊個係你朋友啊? Who is your friend? Type of sentence structure Predicate-object…

Cantonese romanization systems: a complete comparison between Yale romanization of Cantonese and Jyutping

Due to the lack of government-sponsorship, there are numerous amounts of Cantonese romanization systems yet none of them becomes the standard and dominates.  Among these romanization systems, Yale romanization of Cantonese(耶魯粵語拼音)and Jyutping(粵拼)has become the mainstream and have the highest popularity. To choose between learn with Yale romanization of Cantonese (Yale) and Jyutping is an inevitable…

How to say ugly in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say ugly in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say ugly in Cantonese and the difference between Adjective(形容詞) 樣衰 [joeng2 seoi1], 醜 [cau2], 醜樣 [cau2 joeng2] and 醜怪 [cau2 gwaai3]. Ugly in Cantonese: 樣衰 [joeng2 seoi1] Adjective 樣衰 [joeng2 seoi1] means ugly in Cantonese.  樣 [joeng2] here…

How to say boyfriend and girlfriend in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say boyfriend and girlfriend in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say boyfriend and girlfriend in Cantonese. Boyfriend in Cantonese: 男朋友 [naam4 pang4 jau5] 男朋友 [naam4 pang4 jau5] means boyfriend in Cantonese.  男 [naam4] means male and 朋友 [pang4 jau5] means friend in Cantonese. nei5 naam4 pang4…

How to say beautiful and pretty in Cantonese?
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How to say beautiful and pretty in Cantonese?

Hong Kong girls, 港女 [gong2 neoi2], are really beautiful!  Do you know how to say beautiful and pretty in Cantonese to flatter them?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say beautiful and pretty in Cantonese. Beautiful and pretty in Cantonese: 靚 [leng3] Adjective(形容詞) 靚 [leng3] means both beautiful and pretty in Cantonese.  It…

How to say cry in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say cry in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say cry in Cantonese. Cry in Cantonese: 喊 [haam3] Verb(動詞) 喊 [haam3] means cry in Cantonese. m4 hou2 haam3 laa1。 唔好喊啦。 Stop crying. Type of sentence structure Predicate-object Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object Particle Part of…

How to say hungry in Cantonese?
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How to say hungry in Cantonese?

It is tea time again!  Do you feel hungry?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say hungry in Cantonese. Hungry in Cantonese: 肚餓 [tou5 ngo6] Adjective(形容詞) 肚餓 [tou5 ngo6] means hungry in Cantonese. ngo5 hou2 tou5 ngo6 aa3! 我好肚餓啊! I am very hungry! Types of sentence structure Subject-predicate Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial…

How to say good morning, good afternoon, good evening and good night in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say good morning, good afternoon, good evening and good night in Cantonese?  Learn these basic Cantonese phrases and start greeting in Cantonese. Good morning in Cantonese: 早晨 [zou2 san4] Good morning in Cantonese is 早晨 [zou2 san4]. zou2 san4。 早晨。 Good morning。 Type of sentence structure Subject-predicate Functions in sentence…

How to say cold in Cantonese?
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How to say cold in Cantonese?

Have you ever watched movies in cinema in Hong Kong before?  Cinemas in Hong Kong are always freezing due to the high power air conditioning.  Do you know how to express how cold you feel and ask the staff to turn down the air conditioning?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say cold…

How to say breakfast, lunch and dinner in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say breakfast, lunch and dinner in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say breakfast, lunch and dinner in Cantonese. Breakfast in Cantonese: 早餐 [zou2 caan1] 早餐 [zou2 caan1] means breakfast in Cantonese.  餐 [caan1] here means meal in Cantonese. nei5 sik6 zo2 zou2 caan1 mei6 aa3? 你食咗早餐未啊?…

How to say sad in Cantonese?
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How to say sad in Cantonese?

There is always ups and downs in our life.  Do you know how to express your sadness with your friends in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say sad in Cantonese. Sad in Cantonese: 傷心 [soeng1 sam1] There are two adjective(形容詞)you can use to express sad in Cantonese.  For the first one,…

How to say want in Cantonese?
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How to say want in Cantonese?

Have you ever been to a restaurant where waiters there do not speak English at all?  Can you ask for what you want in Cantonese in such scenario?  In this lesson, you will learn how to say want in Cantonese. Want in Cantonese: 想 [soeng2] Auxiliary verb(助動詞) 想 [soeng2] means want in Cantonese. ngo5 soeng2…

U12L3 Cantonese grammar 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] are used to restrict predicate(謂語), object(賓語), cognate object(同指賓語)and adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 咋 [zaa3] and 喳 [zaa4] cannot be used to restrict subject(主語)of a sentence. Due to how flexible 咋 [zaa3] and 喳…

How to say angry in Cantonese?

Have you ever experienced injustice in your life?  On the night of 11 August 2019, police force in Hong Kong has imposed incredibly excessive and inhumane forces against protestors and citizens.  They have fired tear gases inside the subway stations, spraying pepper ball against protestors within 1m in the manner of mass execution and deliberately…

How to say crazy in Cantonese?
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How to say crazy in Cantonese?

Hong Kong is becoming absurd and ludicrous.  Can you find the right word to describe this situation?  In this lesson, we will teach you how to say crazy in Cantonese. Crazy in Cantonese: 黐線 [ci1 sin3] There are two words that can be translated into crazy in Cantonese.  For the first one, you can use…

How to say pain in Cantonese?
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How to say pain in Cantonese?

In this lesson, the word for expressing pain in Cantonese will be introduced.  It is inevitable that we get sick from time to time.  Do you know how to tell your doctor where you feel pain in Cantonese? Pain in Cantonese: 痛 [tung3] Adjective 痛 [tung3] can be used to express pain in Cantonese. ngo5…

How to say hello in Cantonese?
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How to say hello in Cantonese?

Do you know how to say "Hello" in Cantonese?  In this lesson, you will learn three basic phrases for saying "Hello" in Cantonese, both formally and informally. Say hello in Cantonese formally: 你好 [nei5 hou2] "Hello" in Cantonese is 你好 [nei5 hou2].  你好 [nei5 hou2] can be used in both formal and informal setting. nei5…

How to ask how much in Cantonese?
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How to ask how much in Cantonese?

Have you ever been to wet market in Hong Kong?  Do you know how to ask how much in Cantonese?  You can use 幾錢 [gei2 cin2] as an interrogative pronoun to form such question.  幾 [gei2] is a specifying determinative(特指性代詞)and it is used to modify 錢 [cin2] here according to subordination(偏正式). Asking how much in…

How to say how are you in Cantonese?
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How to say how are you in Cantonese?

Apart from the basic greeting 你好 [nei5 hou2], do you know other greetings in Cantonese?  Do you know how to say "how are you" in Cantonese?  In this lesson, basic expressions for saying "How are you" will be introduced. How are you in Cantonese: 點 [dim2]/ 點樣 [dim2 joeng2] Pro-adjective(代形容詞)點 [dim2]/ 點樣 [dim2 joeng2] can…

Survival Cantonese podcast : How to ask ‘How much is it?’ in Cantonese?

Introduction This podcast series is designed to help beginners or intermediates learn useful Cantonese expressions for situations they may encounter in their daily live.  Unlike other Cantonese podcasts, this podcast series is conducted mainly in Cantonese with minimal aid of English, and the transcript of this podcast is provided on our website for your reference,…

How to politely ask a question in Cantonese?
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How to politely ask a question in Cantonese?

Every book, website or Cantonese class will teach you how to form a question in Cantonese, but do you know how to politely ask a question in Cantonese?  Do you know how to make your question sounds softer?  In this lesson, basic expressions for asking a question politely in Cantonese will be introduced. Politely ask…

How to say hot in Cantonese?
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How to say hot in Cantonese?

During summer, Hong Kong is very hot and humid.  Do you know how to say hot in Cantonese?  In this lesson, basic adjectives for describing hotness will be introduced. Hot in Cantonese: 熱 [jit6] You can use adjective(形容詞)熱 [jit6] to express the weather, a person or an object as hot in Cantonese. hou2 jit6 aa3…

U10L10 Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)

Introduction Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)is a type of complement that cannot be separated from the rest of the sentence with a punctuation(標點符號)or a particle(助詞); you should not make any pause between the bound phrase complement and the rest of the sentence in speaking. There are several words that can be used in bound phrase complement with…

How to say I don’t understand in Cantonese?
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How to say I don’t understand in Cantonese?

It is inevitable that you will come across some words or sentences that you don't understand in a Cantonese conversation.  Do you know how to say I don't understand in Cantonese?  In this lesson, basic verbs and expressions showing you don't understand something will be introduced. You can use verb(動詞)知 [zi1], 明 [ming4] and clause(分句)聽唔明…

Survival Cantonese podcast : How to ask ‘Where is…?’ in Cantonese?

Introduction This podcast series is designed to help beginners or intermediates learn useful Cantonese expressions for situations they may encounter in their daily live.  Unlike other Cantonese podcasts, this podcast series is conducted mainly in Cantonese with minimal aid of English, and the transcript of this podcast is provided on our website for your reference,…

U10L9 Recovery complement(回復補語)

Being similar with potential complement(能性補語), recovery complement(回復補語)is created by inserting 翻[faan1] in between the predicate(謂語)and the complement(補語)of a sentence that structured according to predicative-complement(謂補式).  The 翻[faan1] here does not have any part of speech. Recovery complement can be used to indicate something returns to its original location or state as the consequence of an action.…

How to say sleepy in Cantonese?
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How to say sleepy in Cantonese?

In this lesson, adjective for describing someone as sleepy will be introduced.  Do you know how to say sleepy in Cantonese? Sleepy in Cantonese: 眼瞓 [ngaan5 fan3] You can use adjective(形容詞)眼瞓 [ngaan5 fan3] to say sleepy in Cantonese. ngo5 hou2 ngaan5 fan3 aa3 我好眼瞓啊。 I am very sleepy. Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative Functions in…

How to say I am tired in Cantonese?
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How to say I am tired in Cantonese?

Working in Hong Kong is not easy and working overtime is almost inevitable.  Tell your senior that you are very tired and you want to go home!  Do you know how to say tired in Cantonese?  In this lesson, adjectives that express tired in Cantonese will be introduced. Tired in Cantonese: 攰 [gui6] You can…

How to say I love you in Cantonese?
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How to say I love you in Cantonese?

Do you have a crush on someone in Hong Kong?  If you have a partner already, do you know how to express your love to him or her in Cantonese?  Do you know how to say I love you in Cantonese?  In this lesson, basic words and expressions for showing your love and your liking…

U8L12 Cantonese grammar 㗎 [gaa3/ gaa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞)  㗎 [gaa3/ gaa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Back in Unit 2 Lesson 4, you have learnt using 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式); you have also learnt using particle(助詞)啊[aa3] in Unit 8 Lesson 5 and particle 呀[aa4] in Unit 8 Lesson 6. When the head(端語)of subordination is being omitted due…

How to say sorry in Cantonese?
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How to say sorry in Cantonese?

No matter how can careful you are, mistakes will be made at some point in time.  Do you know how to apologize and say sorry in Cantonese?  In this lesson, two basic expressions for saying sorry in Cantonese will be introduced.  Both expressions 對唔住 [deoi3 m4 zyu6] and 唔好意思 [m4 hou2 ji3 si1] can be…

U10L8 Potential complement(能性補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of creating potential complement(能性補語)with 得[dak1] will be introduced.  Potential complement is a complement that indicates something is possible to happen or it is allowed to be done.  Unlike any other complement(補語)that you have learnt previously, potential complement is created by inserting 得[dak1] in between the predicate(謂語)and the…

How to say thank you in Cantonese?
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How to say thank you in Cantonese?

Are you confused with how to say thank you in Cantonese?  As both verb(動詞)唔該 [m4 goi1] and 多謝 [do1 ze6] mean “thank you”, do you know when to use 唔該 [m4 goi1] and when to use 多謝 [do1 ze6]?  In this lesson, two basic ways for saying thank you in Cantonese will be introduced. Thank…

U2L16 Contraction related with 嘅[ge3]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, contraction related with 嘅[ge3] will be introduced.  Since Unit 2 Lesson 5, we have learnt how to use 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式)to modify a noun(名詞); in Unit 1 Lesson 2, we have also learnt how to use 係[hai6] to indicate the subject(主語)equals with the object(賓語)based on subject-predicative(主謂式).  When we are…

How to say unpalatable in Cantonese?
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How to say unpalatable in Cantonese?

Although there are many great foods in Hong Kong, have you ever tried some unsavory food that taste bad?  Do you know how to describe them and share it with your friends, and probably, complain about it with waiters in Cantonese?  In this lesson, unpalatable in Cantonese will be introduced. Unpalatable in Cantonese: Negating 好食…

How to say delicious in Cantonese?
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How to say delicious in Cantonese?

Being called as “the paradise of cuisine” 美食天堂[mei5 sik6 tin1 tong4], there are so many delicious food of different culture available in Hong Kong.  Do you know how to say delicious in Cantonese?  In this lesson, serval basic adjectives(形容詞)for describe foods and drinks you like will be introduced. Delicious in Cantonese for food: 好食 [hou2…

U6L7 Adverb 先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] and 就[zau6]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the difference between adverb(副詞)先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] and 就[zau6]will be introduced.  Both adverb 就[zau6] and 先[sin1]/ 先至[sin1 zi3]/ 至[zi3] are used to indicate the consequence or the following action of a condition; you should use these two adverbs whenever you are making a clause of condition(條件句)in the structure of…

U8L11 Cantonese grammar 呢 [ne1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 呢 [ne1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  In general, 呢 [ne1] is a particle for directing focus towards a subject that is different from previous statements.  呢 [ne1] can be used in an exclamation sentence(感嘆句)and an interrogative sentence(疑問句).  Do not confuse particle 呢 [ne1] with demonstrative determinatives(指示性代詞)呢 [ni1].…

U10L6 Directional complement(方向補語)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, directional complement(方向補語)will be introduced.  Directional complement is a type of complement that indicates the direction of an action.  There are 3 categories of directional complement.  As each category has different properties and they can be combined based on a certain pattern, you should memorize which category does each directional…

U10L5 Complement of extent(程度補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, complement of extent(程度補語)will be introduced.  Complement of extent(程度補語)are used to describe the extent of an action or a state.  Whenever this complement is used, 到[dou3], which does not have any part of speech, has to be attached right after the predicate.  Many crazy and exaggerating metaphors in Cantonese are…

U8L10 Cantonese grammar 先 [sin1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 先 [sin1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 先 [sin1] can be used as a particle or an adverb(副詞).  As a particle, despite its meanings would change slightly depending on the type of sentence used with it, they are still circling around "doing something first"; 先 [sin1] can…

How to say happy new year in Cantonese?

A new year is coming.  Do you know how to say happy new year in Cantonese? Happy new year in Cantonese Happy new year in Cantonese is 新年快樂[san1 nin4 faai3 lok6], and it can be used in both New Year(新年)and Lunar New Year(農曆新年). san1 nin4 faai3 lok6! 新年快樂! Happy new year! Other common greetings Other…

U10L4 Descriptive complement(描寫補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, descriptive complement(描寫補語)will be introduced.  Descriptive complement(描寫補語)is used to describe the status or the result of the action.  In order to use this complement, 得 [dak1], which does not have any part of speech, has to be attached right after the verb.  There are 4 possible structures for using descriptive…

U7L8 Cantonese grammar 好過 [hou2 gwo3]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 好過 [hou2 gwo3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  好過[hou2 gwo3] is a particle for persuading the listener by saying something is better than something else.  As particle 好過[hou2 gwo3] is created by combining adjective(形容詞)好[hou2] and phase complement(狀態補語)過[gwo3] together, its meaning is the combination of those two words. Rules…

U10L3 Intensifying complement(強化補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, intensifying complement(強化補語)死[sei2] and  透[tau3] will be introduced.  Intensifying complement is used for exaggerating a verb or an adjective; the translation of a sentence using intensifying complement is more or less the same with a sentence that uses adverbial(狀語)to exaggerate. ngo5 hou2 hoi1 sam1 我好開心。(Adverbial) I am very happy. ngo5…

The meaning of 上車[soeng5 ce1]

Hong Kong’s property price is infamously expensive, ranking the highest in the world for consecutively since 2010.  Have you ever wondered if there is any word in Cantonese related with this unaffordable market?  In this lesson, we will introduce a phrase 上車[soeng5 ce1] to you. Originally, 車[ce1] means a vehicle.  Do you know these vocabularies…

U10L2 Phase complement(狀態補語)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, phase complement(狀態補語)will be introduced.  Phase complement(狀態補語)is used to represent a few special states achieved by the predicate and it can only be created with the following 4 words.  These words do not have any part of speech and their usages are completely independent. Phase complements Usages 着[zoek6] To indicate…

U8L9 Cantonese grammar 嘅 [ge2]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 嘅 [ge2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  嘅 [ge2] is used for asking why in Cantonese. 嘅 [ge2] is used in specified interrogative sentences(特指問句) and it can only be used with interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞)點解 [dim2 gaai2] and 做乜 [zou6 mat1].  Do not confuse this 嘅 [ge2] with 嘅 [ge3],…

U8L7 Cantonese grammar 咩 [me1]

In this lesson, grammar of 咩 [me1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  咩 [me1] is a particle(助詞)and it can be used to create a rhetorical question or to show your surprise.  You can only use 咩[me1] in the yes-no question(是非問句). Usage 1 of 咩 [me1] in Cantonese grammar Particle(助詞)咩 [me1] can be used in a…

U5L8 Contraction of sentences created with 過[gwo3]

  You have learnt how to use 過[gwo3] to compare the subject and the object of a sentence with an adjective back in Unit 5 Lesson 5.  Those sentences can be shortened with the use of cognate object(同指賓語)or complement(補語).  In this lesson, contraction created with the use of cognate object will be first introduced; contraction…

U10L1 Predicative-complement(謂補式)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative-complement(謂補式)and resultative complement(結果補語)will be introduced.  Being similar with predicative expression in series(連謂式), predicative-complement is created by combining two predicates(謂語)together, with the second predicate called complement(補語).  For the difference between predicative expression in series and predicative-complement, predicative expression in series may combine more than two predicates yet predicative-complement can only…

U8L6 Cantonese grammar 呀 [aa4]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 呀 [aa4] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Unlike the 啊 [aa3] that you have learnt in previous lesson, 呀 [aa4] can only be used in yes-no question(是非問句). Grammar of using 呀 [aa4] in Cantonese Particle 呀 [aa4] is used to ask the listener confirming a statement, as the…

U8L5 Cantonese grammar 啊 [aa3]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 啊 [aa3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle 啊 [aa3] is used to soften a sentence; it can be used to soften interrogative sentences(疑問句), imperative sentences(祈使句)and descriptive sentences(陳述句).  Since particle 啊 [aa3] can be used in all kind of sentences, it is the particle with highest frequency in…

U8L4 Affirmative-negative question(正反問句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, affirmative-negative question(正反問句)will be introduced.  Affirmative-negative question(正反問句)is actually a disjunctive question(選擇問句)that offers the positive and the negative side of an action instead of offering two different options; it is asking the listener to choose either the positive or the negative side of that action. nei5 ting3 jat6 soeng2 m4 soeng2…

U9L1 Pivotal construction(兼語式)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, pivotal construction(兼語式)will be introduced.  Basically, pivotal construction is created by connecting a sentence in predicative-object(謂賓式)with a sentence in subject-predicative(主謂式)or in predicative-object again.  The noun that serves as the object of the first predicate and the subject of the second predicate is called pivot(兼語). Combination patterns of pivotal construction Pattern…

U8L3 Yes-no question(是非問句)

In this lesson, yes-no question(是非問句)will be introduced.  Unlike other interrogative sentences(疑問句), Yes-no question(是非問句)is a type of question that is created simply by using a particle(助詞)in the end of a sentence; you don't need and you cannot use any interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞)in a yes-no question.  As you have not learnt about particles that can be used in…

U8L2 Disjunctive question(選擇問句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, disjunctive question(選擇問句)will be introduced.  Disjunctive question(選擇問句)is created by combining two or more sentences into one according to the structure of compound sentences(並列句)and it is asking for listener's choice between those provided options.  You can revise compound sentences in Unit 6 Lesson 2.  The following words are used to connect two…

U8L1 Specified Interrogative sentences(特指問句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, interrogative sentences(疑問句)and specified interrogative sentences(特指問句)will be introduced.  In Cantonese, there are four types of interrogative sentences(疑問句)and they are created in a different structure. Types of Interrogative sentence Specified Interrogative sentences(特指問句) Disjunctive question(選擇問句)   Yes-no question(是非問句)   Affirmative-negative question(正反問句)   Specified interrogative sentences(特指問句) Specified interrogative sentences are created by inserting…

U6L5 Because and but in Cantonese 但係 [daan6 hai6];因為 [jan1 wai6]

In this lesson, conjunctions(連詞) meaning because and but in Cantonese will be introduced. But in Cantonese: 但係 [daan6 hai6], 不過 [bat1 gwo3], 之不過 [zi1 bat1 gwo3] and 之但係 [zi1 daan6 hai6] The following conjunctions mean but in Cantonese. But in Cantonese 但係[daan6 hai6] 不過[bat1 gwo3] 之不過[zi1 bat1 gwo3] 之但係[zi1 daan6 hai6] When using these conjunctions…

U6L4 Complex sentence(偏正句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, complex sentences(偏正句)will be introduced.  Complex sentences are composite sentences(複句)that one of its component sentence does not possess any true value(真假值)(i.e. unknown).  The usage of complex sentences can be divided into the followings: Usages of complex sentences Usage 1 Clauses of Condition(條件句) To use the sentence with unknown true value…

U6L3 Correlative conjunction(相關連詞)Part I

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, correlative conjunctions(相關連詞)will be introduced.  Correlative conjunctions are created by using adverbial conjunctions(副詞性連詞)or conjunctions(連詞)together or by repeating itself in a sentence; conjunction is placed before the subject of a sentence and adverbial conjunction is placed after the subject of a sentence like an adverb(副詞).  In this lesson, correlative conjunctions that…

U6L2 Composite sentence(複句)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, composite sentence(複句)and compound sentences(並列句)will be introduced.  Composite sentence(複句)is referring to a sentence that is created by combining two or more sentences together.  In Cantonese, composite sentence can be divided as the following 3 types.  Each type of composite sentence has a set of specific usages associated with it.  It…

U7L6 Cantonese grammar 罷啦 [baa2 laa1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞) 罷啦 [baa2 laa1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  罷啦 [baa2 laa1] is a particle with two syllables.  The rules for using 罷啦 is very strict.  First of all, the subject of sentence described by 罷啦 has to be a human that can do something consciously. Secondly, the predicate…

U6L1 And in Cantonese

In this lesson, And in Cantonese will be introduced.  Prepositional conjunction(介詞性連詞) 同 [tung4], 同埋 [tung4 maai4] and 夾埋 [gaap3 maai4] means And in Cantonese.  Unlike conjunction(連詞), which connects two or more clauses or sentences together and form a complex sentence(複句), prepositional conjunction connects two nouns together in the structure of coordination(並列式). And in Cantonese:同 [tung4]、同埋…

U7L5 Cantonese grammar 噃 [bo3]

In this lesson, the grammar of 噃 [bo3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  噃[bo3] is a particle(助詞)that can be used in imperative sentence(祈使句)for providing advices or opinions or it can be used to show your realization on something you did not know previously. Usage 1 of 噃 [bo3] in Cantonese grammar 噃[bo3] is used to…

U7L4 Cantonese grammar 喎 [wo3/wo4/wo5]

In this lesson, the grammar of 喎 [wo3/wo4/wo5] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Particle(助詞)喎 [wo3/wo4/wo5] can only be used in imperative sentence(祈使句).  It is used to make a suggestion indirectly by restating a fact that the speakers have previously seen, heard, felt or experienced.  The meanings of 喎 would change depending on its tone and…

U7L3 Cantonese grammar 啦 [laa1]

In this lesson, the grammar of particle(助詞)and particle 啦 [laa1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  What is particle in Cantonese? Particle(助詞)is always located at the very end of a sentence and independent from all sentence structure.  It is the most difficult grammar concept for foreigner to master due to its complexity and the need of…

U7L2 Cantonese grammar 好 [hou2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 好 [hou2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Since Unit 1 Lesson 3, we have been using 好 [hou2] as an adverb(副詞), yet it can be used as an auxiliary verb(助動詞)too.  Its meaning is similar with 應該 [jing1 goi1] and they are interchangeable in following example sentences.  When 好 is…

U4L6 Cantonese grammar 吓 [haa5]

In this lesson, the grammar of 吓 [haa5] in Cantonese will be introduced.  吓 [haa5] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)that indicates an action has been done for a very short period of time, to a small extent or in a low frequency.  It is commonly used in imperative sentence(祈使句)and interrogative sentence(疑問句)to downplay the suggestion or the…

U4L5 Cantonese grammar 親 [can1]

In this lesson, the grammar of predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾) 親 [can1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Predicative suffix 親 [can1] is used to indicate an action would lead to a same consequence whenever it is carried out; the consequence is usually but not necessary negative.  親 [can1] can only be used when that action has happened…

U4L4 Predicative suffix 過[gwo3]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)過[gwo3] will be introduced.  You have already learnt that 過[gwo3] can be used as a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾) for indicating experiencing something in Unit 1 Lesson 10.  Nevertheless, 過 can also be used to indicate an action has to be carried out again, as something undesirable happened last time…

U7L1 Imperative sentence(祈使句)

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, imperative sentence(祈使句)will be introduced.  Imperative sentence is a sentence that gives out an order or a suggestion.  There are a few rules you can follow for creating an imperative sentence.  First of all, you have to use a verb(動詞)as the predicate of that sentence and it has to be a…

U5L7 Superlative adjective 最[zeoi3]

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, superlative adjective in Cantonese will be introduced.  You can indicate an adjective as a superlative adjective(最高級), which is an adjective that describe the subject at the upper or the lower limit, by adding adverb(副詞)最[zeoi3] to the sentence.  The clause or the sentence that you add 最 in has to…

U5L6 Adjective in inferior degree(低於級)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of indicating the subject is inferior than the object will be introduced.  The verb(動詞)冇[mou5] is used as the predicate to indicate that something is inferior comparing with something else by using an adjective(形容詞). Keoi5 mou5 nei5 gam3 mung4 caa4 caa4 佢冇你咁蒙查查。 He is not as dumb as…

U5L5 Adjectives in superior degree(比較級)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of comparing two nouns with adjective in Cantonese will be explained.  過[gwo3] is a phase complement(狀態補語)and it is used in the structure of predicative-complement(謂補式)to compare the subject and the object.  A more in-depth explanation on predicative-complement(謂補式)and phase complement(狀態補語)is available in Unit 10 Lesson 1 and Unit 10…

U5L4 Adjectives in equal degree(相等級)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, you will learn how to express a meaning which something is in an equal degree with something else with an adjective.  To create such meaning, you have to use adverb 一樣[jat1 joeng6] and 咁[gam3] as the adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 一樣 means the same and 咁 is a pro-adverb(代副詞)for indicating…

U3L10 Cantonese grammar 好似 [hou2 ci5]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞)好似 [hou2 ci5] in Cantonese will be introduced.  好似 [hou2 ci5] is a word with overlapped classes and it can be used as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞). Grammar of using 好似 [hou2 ci5] as a verb in Cantonese When 好似 [hou2 ci5] is used as a verb, it means…

U5L3 Pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs(代副詞、代形容詞、代動詞)

  In this Cantonese grammar lesson, pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs will be introduced.  Pronoun are used to substitute a noun or a noun phrase.  For pro-adverb(代副詞), pro-adjective(代形容詞)and pro-verb(代動詞), they are used to substitute adverb(副詞), adjective(形容詞)and verb(動詞)respectively.  The meaning of these words are depending on the context and they can be roughly translated as “like that”.…

U5L1 Adverb(副詞)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of using adverb(副詞)will be introduced.  In Cantonese, adverb(副詞)can be used to as the adverbial(狀語)to describe the predicate(謂語)when a noun, an adjective or a verb is used as the predicate; adverb can also be used as the subject(主語)to describe the predicate when a clause or a complete sentence…

U4L1 Cantonese grammar 開 [hoi1]

In this lesson, grammar of 開 [hoi1] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of 開 [hoi1] 開 [hoi1] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)that indicates an action is used to be done by the subject(主語).  Similar with other predicative suffix, 開 [hoi1] is used after the predicate and it cannot be used with any other predicative suffix…

U2L15 To describe transient words(過渡詞)

Introduction As we have learnt in previous lessons, determinatives(定詞)are used to modify a noun.  Nevertheless, they can be modified too, according to the structure of subordination(偏正式).  Words that are described by determinatives is called transient words(過渡詞) and they can be further modified.  In this lesson, we are going to learn using nouns, verbs, adjectives and full…

U3L9 Cantonese grammar 為咗 [wai6 zo2]

In this lesson, grammar of preposition(介詞)為咗 [wai6 zo2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  為咗[wai6 zo2] is a preposition and it is used to indicate something is done for somebody or something; the 咗[zo2] of 為咗 is not the predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)咗[zo2]. Using 為咗 [wai6 zo2] in Cantonese grammar Again, 為咗 [wai6 zo2] follows all the rules…

U3L7 Cantonese grammar 將 [zoeng1]

In this lesson, the grammar of 將 [zoeng1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  Preposition(介詞)將 [zoeng1] can only be used as the first predicate in the predicative expression in series (連謂式)for moving the second object before the second predicate.  Although this grammar was adopted from Mandarin and it has no specific meaning in Cantonese now, it…

U3L6 Cantonese grammar 用 [jung6] and 靠 [kaau3]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 用 [jung6] and 靠 [kaau3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  According to the usage 1 of predicative expression in series(連謂式), the first predicate(謂語)in the structure can be used to describe the manner or the mean for carrying out an action in the second predicate.  For describing the manner…

U3L5 Cantonese grammar 畀 [bei2] and 由 [jau4]

In this lesson, Cantonese grammar of 畀 [bei2] and 由 [jau4] will be introduced.  These two prepositions(介詞)are very important, as they are used for creating passive voice sentences in Cantonese.  Study this lesson carefully until you feel confident in using them. Grammar of 畀 [bei2] 畀[bei2] can be functioned as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞).  When…

U3L4 Cantonese grammar 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 跟住 [gan1 zyu6], 照住 [ziu3 zyu6], 依照 [ji1 ziu3] and 根據 [gan1 geoi3] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of preposition 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] in Cantonese 根據 [gan1 geoi3] and 依照 [ji1 ziu3] are used to indicate something is done according to something.  These…

U3L3 Cantonese grammar 同 [tung4] and 幫 [bong1]

In this lesson, the grammar of preposition(介詞) 同 [tung4] and 幫 [bong1] in Cantonese will be introduced.  同 [tung4] can be used as a conjunction(連詞)or a preposition, and their difference is extremely easy to overlook. 同 [tung4] is a preposition when it is used to connect two nouns with a different function in the sentence…

U3L2 Prepositions in predicative expression in series 喺[hai2]/ 响[hoeng2]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, preposition(介詞)will be introduced.  Despite being similar with verb(動詞), prepositions(介詞)is a type of word that can only be used in predicative expression in series(連謂式).  The following prepositions will be explained clearly in the upcoming lessons. Prepositions that can be used in predicative expression in series 喺[hai2];响[hoeng2] 同[tung4];幫[bong1] 用[jung6];靠[kaau3] 除咗[ceoi4 zo2];連[lin4]…

U3L1 Predicative expression in series(連謂式)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative expression in series(連謂式)will be introduced.  Predicative expression in series is a sentence structure created by combining two or more predicates(謂語)together.  The usages of this structure are complicated and it can be divided into the following.  As preposition(介詞)is closely related with predicative expression in series, they will be explained…

U2L14 Cantonese grammar of cognate object (同指賓語)

In this lesson, the grammar of cognate object (同指賓語)in Cantonese will be introduced.  Similar with English, verb(動詞)in Cantonese can be classified into transitive and intransitive verbs.   Transitive verbs can take an object and intransitive verbs cannot take an object but a cognate object.  Cognate object (同指賓語)is an object that can be used with intransitive verbs for indicating…

U2L13 Reference(指稱)

Introduction If a speaker is referring to a specific one when he talks about a noun, that noun possesses definite reference(確定指稱); if the speaker is not referring to a specific one but that noun in general, that noun possesses indefinite reference(不定指稱).  Basically, this concept is the same with definite (the) and indefinite (a/an) article in English…

U2L10 Specifying determinatives(特指性定詞)

Introduction Specifying determinatives(特指性定詞)are determinatives for specifying a noun(名詞).  Similar with other determinatives, you have to attach them to other words in order to use them in a sentence.  These determinatives are usually added to counters(量詞)by following the structure of subordination(偏正式). Specifying Determinative Meaning 每 [mui5] Every 各 [gok3] Each (Formal) 本 [bun2] This (Formal) 某…

U2L9 Quantitative determinatives(數量性定詞)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, quantitative determinatives(數量性定詞)will be introduced.  Quantitative determinatives are used to represent a vague estimation or an unspecific number, instead of an exact number.  Similar with other determinatives, you have to attach them to other words in order to use them in a sentence, and these determinatives are mostly added to…

U2L8 Cantonese grammar 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] in Cantonese will be introduced.  呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] are used to describe a noun and they mean this and that respectively. Grammar of 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] 呢 [ni1] and 嗰 [go2] are demonstrative determinatives(指示性定詞), which is a type of determinative(定詞)for…

Cantonese input installation on Mac, Windows, iOS, Android and Chrome for both Jyutping and Yale (Updated July 2019)

Introduction The best way to practice Cantonese is to use it often!  Although there are many input methods for typing Cantonese, we highly recommend you use an input that is related with the romanization of a word, which helps you memorize words effectively.  In this article, we are going to guide you setting up inputs…

Cantonese pronunciation guide (78 initials and finals explained)

Introduction Learning Cantonese pronunciation is the first challenge faced by language learners.  With 22 consonants, 8 vowels and 2 syllabic consonants, there are 78 different initials and finals in Cantonese.  This sheer number can already drive learners crazy, if they cannot find materials made systematically and professionally, let alone Cantonese being a tonal language. Therefore,…

U1L10 Cantonese grammar 過 [gwo3]

In this lesson, grammar of 過 [gwo3] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of 過 [gwo3] in Cantonese 過 [gwo3] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)and it can be used to indicate that the subject had an experience of doing something. Ngo5 hok6 gwo3 gwong2 dung1 waa2 我學過廣東話。 I have learnt Cantonese before. (I had the experience…

U1L9 Cantonese grammar 咗 [zo2]

In this lesson, grammar of 咗 [zo2] in Cantonese will be introduced. Grammar of 咗 [zo2] in Cantonese 咗 [zo2] is a predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾)and it is used to indicate an action has been completed. Ngo5 sik6 zo2 faan6 我食咗飯。 I have eaten the meal. Type of sentence structure Predicative-object Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix…

U1L8 Using a complete sentence as an object

Introduction In previous lesson, you have learnt how to use noun(名詞), verb(動詞), adjective(形容詞) and clause(分句)as an object of a sentence.  In this lesson, we are going to learn how to use a full sentence(完整句子)as an object of a sentence.   Using a full sentence as an object A full sentence is a clause that possess…

U1L7 To carry out an action in the future 會[wui5]

  Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, auxiliary verb(助動詞)會[wui5] will be introduced.  To express an action will be carried out in the future, you need to use 會[wui5] as the predicate of a sentence.  You can revise auxiliary verb(助動詞)in Unit 1 Lesson 6.  The sentence structure being used in this lesson would be in the structure…

U2L7 Describing time and location(時候/地方)

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, two useful nouns, 時候[si4 hau6] and 地方[dei6 fong1], will be introduced.  Both 時候[si4 hau6] means "time" and 地方[dei6 fong1] means "place".  As the subject can be used to represent the time or the place for for the predicate to happen, these two words are usually used as the subject(主語)of…

U1L4 Cantonese grammar 𡁵 [gan2]

In this lesson, the grammar of verb(動詞)and 𡁵 [gan2] in Cantonese will be introduced. Intransitive verb Being similar with English, Cantonese has a division of transitive and intransitive verb.  Structure of subject-predicative(主謂式)is used when an intransitive verb is used as predicate. Ngo5 heoi3 我去。 I go. Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative Functions in sentence Subject…

U2L6 Telling time in Cantonese

In this lesson, the way of telling time in Cantonese will be introduced.  You can tell time in Cantonese by putting numbers(數詞) in front of time words(時間詞)according to the structure of subordination(偏正式). Telling time in Cantonese with time words(時間詞) Time words Meanings 秒 [miu5] second 分鐘 [fan1 zung1] minute 點 [dim2] hour 號 [hou6] day…

U2L5 Describing the status and the features of a noun 嘅[ge3]

Introduction In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the usage of using 嘅[ge3] to describe the status and the feature of a noun will be introduced.  In previous lessons, we have learnt that we can use numbers(數詞)and noun(名詞)to describe a noun with 嘅[ge3] by following the structure of subordination(偏正式).  In this lesson, we are going to learn…

U1L3 Adjectives in Cantonese(形容詞)

In this lesson, adjectives (形容詞) in Cantonese will be introduced.  To use adjective to describe the subject, you can just use the adjective as the predicate, according to the structure of subject-predicative (主謂式). Using Adjectives in Cantonese ngo5 fei4 我肥。 I am fat. Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Part of…

U1L2 Cantonese grammar 係 [hai6]

Welcome to the first lesson of Cantonese grammar(廣東話文法)!  In this lesson, sentence structure subject-predicative(主謂式)and the grammar of 係 [hai6] in Cantonese will be introduced. Subject-predicative(主謂式) In Cantonese, there are 7 basic sentence structures.  In this lesson, the most basic sentence structure, subject-predicative(主謂式)will be introduced.  Only a subject(主語)and a predicate(謂語)is needed for constructing this sentence structure.…

U2L4 Cantonese grammar 嘅 [ge3] Part 1

In this lesson, the grammar of using 嘅 [ge3] in Cantonese will be introduced.  In the previous lesson, we have learnt how to use counters(量詞)and numbers(數詞)to modify and indicate the amount of a noun according to the structure of subordination(偏正式).  In this lesson, we are going learn how to use a noun to modify another…

U2L3 Subordination (偏正式)

In this lesson, ​subordination(偏正式)will be introduced.  Subordination is a structure that allows a noun(名詞)to be modified by another word.   The noun being modified is called “the head” and the modifying noun is called “the modifier”; the modifier would precede the head. Structure of subordination The modifier(修飾語) + the head(端語)   The followings are the usages…

U2L1 Cantonese grammar 喺 [hai2] and 响 [hoeng2]

In this lesson, the grammar of 喺[hai2] and 响[hoeng2] will be introduced.  The classes of 喺 are overlapped and it can be used as a verb(動詞)or a preposition(介詞).  The difference between preposition and verb in Cantonese will be explained clearly in Unit 3 Lesson 2.  Beware that this word looks very similar with the linking…

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