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U10L1 Predicative-complement(謂補式)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, predicative-complement(謂補式)and resultative complement(結果補語)will be introduced.  Being similar with predicative expression in series(連謂式), predicative-complement is created by combining two predicates(謂語)together, with the second predicate called complement(補語).  For the difference between predicative expression in series and predicative-complement, predicative expression in series may combine more than two predicates yet predicative-complement can only combine two predicates together. 

Besides, the focus of predicate of these two structure is different.  The focus for predicative-complement is on that first predicate and the focus for predicative expression in series is on that second predicate.  In other words, you can omit the second predicate for a sentence constructed in predicative-complement and the first predicate for a sentence constructed in predicative expression in series without drastically changing its meaning.

SentenceFocus
Predicative expression in series(連謂式)我喺枱坐。我坐。
Predicative-complement(謂補式)我坐喺枱。我坐。

 

Nevertheless, if you omit predicates other way around, the meaning of that sentence may change completely or become incomprehensible.  There are several types of complement that can be used in the structure of predicative-complement and they will be introduced one by one.  

Types of complement

Resultative complement(結果補語)Phase complement(狀態補語)Intensifying complement(強化補語)
Descriptive complement(描寫補語)Complement of extent(程度補語)Directional complement(方向補語)
Potential complement(能性補語)Recovery complement(回復補語)Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)

 

In this lesson, resultative complement(結果補語)will be explained.

Resultative complement(結果補語)

Resultative complement(結果補語)is a complement that represents the result created by the first predicate.  You can use both adjectives or verbs as complements to describe the result.

keoi5 gaau2 dim6 zo2 go2 gin6 si6

佢攪掂咗嗰件事。

He has finished that thing well.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence攪掂嗰件事

 

Predicate of the sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰件
Head

 

nei5 gaau3 waai6 zo2 keoi5

你教壞咗佢。

You have given him the bad influence.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence教壞

 

Predicate of the sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

seoi2 zam3 zam3 waai6 zo2 ngo5 bou6 din6 daan1 ce1

水浸浸壞咗我部電單車。

The flood has flooded my motorcycle and it has broken down.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence水浸浸壞我部電單車

 

Predicate of the sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我部
Head電單車

 

go2 coeng4 fo2 siu1 laan6 zo2 keoi5 go3 faa1 jyun2

嗰場火燒爛咗佢個花園。

That fire has burnt and damaged his garden.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence嗰場火燒爛佢個花園

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰場
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢個
Head花園

 

cyu4 si1 caau2 hoeng1 zo2 di1 ngau4 juk6 。

廚師炒香咗啲牛肉。

The chief has stir-fried those beef and make them smell good.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence廚師炒香啲牛肉

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head牛肉

 

toi4 fung1 ceoi1 lam3 zo2 gaan1 nguk1

颱風吹冧咗間屋。

The typhoon has blown down that house.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence颱風吹冧間屋

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

go2 go3 sai3 lou6 zai2 ji5 ging1 zou6 jyun4 di1 gung1 fo3

嗰個細路仔已經做完啲功課。

That kid has finished doing homework.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence嗰個細路仔已經做完啲功課

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head細路仔

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head功課

 

keoi5 zaa1 zau2 gan2 bou6 ce1

佢揸走𡁵部車。

He is driving that car away.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence揸走𡁵部車

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

ngo5 sai3 go3 go2 zan6 bei2 jan4 zong6 lat1 gwo3 zek3 ngaa4

我細個嗰陣畀人撞甩過隻牙。

My teeth had been crushed and one of my teeth had chipped away when I was young.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffixObject 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence撞甩隻牙

 

Predicate 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

keoi5 zong6 baau3 zo2 go3 jau4 gong1

佢撞爆咗個油缸。

He has bumped into and crashed that oil tank.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence撞爆個油缸

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head油缸

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 111-113。

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