U10L10 Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)

Introduction

Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)is a type of complement that cannot be separated from the rest of the sentence with a punctuation(標點符號)or a particle(助詞); you should not make any pause between the bound phrase complement and the rest of the sentence in speaking.

There are several words that can be used in bound phrase complement with specific usage respectively.

Bound phrase complement(黏附性詞組補語)

Related wordsUsages
喺[hai2]To indicate the ending point of an action.
到[dou3]To indicate the ending point in time of an action
成[sing4/ seng4]To indicate changes of the subject
畀[bei2]To denote the indirect object(間接賓語)of the predicate

喺[hai2]: To indicate the ending point of an action

As you have learnt in Unit 2 Lesson 1 and Unit 3 Lesson 2, 喺[hai2] can be used as a verb(動詞)to denote the location of the subject or can be used as a preposition(介詞)in predicative expression in series(連謂式)to denote the location for an action to happen.  When 喺[hai2] is used as a bound phrase complement, it is used to denote the location for an action to happen.

For the difference of using 喺[hai2] in predicative expression in series and in bound phrase complement, using 喺[hai2] in predicative expression in series is to denote the starting point of an action and using 喺[hai2] in bound phrase complement is to denote the ending point of an action.

jau5 zek3 maa5 lau1 co5 zo2 hai2 syu6 soeng6 min6

有隻馬騮坐咗喺樹上面。(樹上面 as the destination of its action)

A monkey is sitting on top of the tree.

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicatePredicative suffixComplement
Part of speech/VerbNounVerbPredicative suffixClause
Words in sentence/隻馬騮喺樹上面

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head馬騮

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/樹上面

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier樹上
Head

 

lou5 si1 kei5 zo2 hai2 fo3 sat1 ceot1 min6

老師企咗喺課室出面。(課室出面 as the destination of its action)

The teacher has stood outside the classroom.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixComplement
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixClause
Words in sentence老師喺課室出面

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/課室出面
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Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier課室出
Head

 

keoi5 zyu6 hai2 jing1 gwok3

佢住喺英國。

He lives in Britain.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounVerbClause
Words in sentence喺英國

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/英國

 

jau5 go3 hat1 ji1 fan3 zo2 hoeng2 dei6 haa2 dou6

有個乞衣訓咗响地下度。

A bagger has slept on the floor.

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicatePredicative suffixComplement
Part of speech/VerbNounVerbPredicative suffixClause
Words in sentence/個乞衣响地下度

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head乞衣

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/地下度

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier地下
Head

 

sei2 hai2 zin3 coeng4 soeng6 min6 hai6 jat1 gin6 hou2 gwong1 wing4 ge3 si6

死喺戰場上面係一件好光榮嘅事。

Dying on the battlefield is a glorious thing.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechClauseVerbNoun
Words in sentence死喺戰場上面一件好光榮嘅事

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一件好光榮
Head

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/喺戰場上面

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/戰場上面

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier戰場
Head上面

到[dou3]: To indicate the ending point in time of an action

In Unit 3 Lesson 2, you have also learnt using 喺[hai2] as a preposition(介詞)in predicative expression in series(連謂式)to denote the time for an action to happen.  You can also denote that by using 到[dou3] in bound phrase complement.  Nevertheless, the time being denoted in predicative expression in series is the starting or the midpoint in time for an action, while the time being denoted in bound phrase complement is the ending point in time for an action.

ngo5 jau4 sai3 teng1 zoeng1 gwok3 wing4 di1 go1 teng1 dou3 daai6

我由細聽張國榮啲歌聽到大。

I has been listening songs of Leslie Cheung since I was young.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionAdjectiveClause
Words in sentence聽張國榮啲歌聽到大

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/聽張國榮啲歌聽到大

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/張國榮啲歌

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier張國榮啲
Head

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/到大

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/Auxiliary verbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

go2 go3 fei1 zai2 jau4 sai3 sik6 jin1 sik6 dou3 daai6

嗰個飛仔由細食煙食到大。

That gangster has been smoking since he was young.  (Literal meaning: That gangster has been smoking since he was young and until he became an adult)

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionAdjectiveClause
Words in sentence嗰個飛仔食煙食到大

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head飛仔

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/食煙食到大

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/到大

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/Auxiliary verbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

ngo5 tung4 pang4 jau5 hai2 gung1 jun4 king1 gai3 king1 dou3 tin1 gwong1

我同朋友喺公園傾偈傾到天光。

I talk with my friend in the park until dawn.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2Predicate 3
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounPrepositionNounClause
Words in sentence朋友公園傾偈傾到天光

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/傾偈傾到天光

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/到天光

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/天光

 

go2 go3 hou2 kan4 lik6 ge3 jan4 mui5 jat6 dou1 zou6 dou3 bun3 je2 loeng5 dim2 sin1 tau2

嗰個好勤力嘅人每日都做到半夜兩點先抖。

That industrious person works until 2am every day before he rests.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence嗰個好勤力嘅人每日都做到半夜兩點先抖

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbial 1PredicateComplement
Part of speechNounNoun; adverbVerbClause
Words in sentence嗰個好勤力嘅人每日; 都到半夜兩點

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個好勤力
Head

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speech/AdverbVerb
Words in sentence/

成[sing4/ seng4]: To indicate changes of the subject

When being used in bound phrase complement, 成[sing4/ seng4] is used to describe the state of the subject after undergoing some changes.

sap6 nin4 zi1 hau6,hoeng1 gong2 wui5 bin3 sing4 dim2 ne1?

十年之後,香港會變成點呢?

How would Hong Kong be after 10 years?

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateParticle
Part of speechNounNounParticle
Words in sentence十年之後香港會變成點

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier十年
Head之後

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence香港變成點

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/成點

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/Auxiliary verbPro-adjective
Words in sentence/

 

m4 faan1 hok6 ge3 hok6 saang1 hou2 ji6 bin3 sing4 jan2 bai3 cing1 nin4

唔返學嘅學生好易變成隱蔽青年。

Students who don’t go to school is likely to become hidden youths.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbClause
Words in sentence唔返學嘅學生好易成隱蔽青年

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier唔返學
Head學生

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/隱蔽青年

 

nei5 haau2 si3 haau2 sing4 dim2 aa3

你考試考成點啊?

How’s your examination?

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplementParticle
Part of speechNounClauseClauseParticle
Words in sentence考試考成點

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/成點

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/Auxiliary verbPro-adjective
Words in sentence/

 

go2 go3 hou2 jai5 ge3 siu2 pang4 jau5 zoeng1 zoeng1 sing4 zik1 biu2 zin2 sing4 seoi3 zi2

嗰個好曳嘅小朋友將張成績表剪成碎紙。

That naughty kid has shredded his report card into strips.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClause
Words in sentence嗰個好曳嘅小朋友張成績表剪成碎紙

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個好曳
Head小朋友

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head成績表

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/成碎紙

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/碎紙

 

cyu4 si1 zoeng1 gau6 zyu1 juk6 doek3 sing4 juk6 seoi3

廚師將嚿豬肉剁成肉碎。

The chief minced the pork into minced pork.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClause
Words in sentence廚師嚿豬肉剁成肉碎

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head豬肉

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbClause
Words in sentence/成肉碎

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/肉碎

畀[bei2]: To denote the indirect object(間接賓語)of the predicate

When 畀[bei2] is used as a verb(動詞), it means ‘to give’; when 畀[bei2] is used as a preposition(介詞)in predicative expression in series(連謂式), it turns the sentence into passive voice.  If you want to revise using 畀[bei2] as a preposition, you may refer to Unit 3 Lesson 5.

Meanwhile, when 畀[bei2] is used as a verb in the bound phrase complement, it indicates the indirect object(間接賓語)of the predicate.  Indirect object(間接賓語)is referring to the object that is influenced indirectly by the predicate, which is usually the receiver of the direct object(直接賓語).

jau5 go3 jau4 caai1 ngaam1 ngaam1 gaau1 zo2 fung1 seon3 bei2 keoi5

有個郵差啱啱交咗封信畀佢。

A postman has given him the letter.

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotAdverbialPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbNounAdverbClauseClause
Words in sentence/個郵差啱啱交咗封信畀佢

 

Pivot of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head郵差

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/封信

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Can4 lou5 si1 sung3 zo2 bun2 syu1 bei2 ngo5

陳老師送咗本書畀我。

Miss Chan has given me a book.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence陳老師送咗本書畀我

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/本書

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

ngo5 pang4 jau5 hai2 faat3 gwok3 maai5 zo2 di1 sau2 seon3 bei2 ngo5

我朋友喺法國買咗啲手信畀我。

My friend has brought me some souvenirs.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClause
Words in sentence我朋友法國買咗啲手信畀我

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/買咗啲手信畀我

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/啲手信

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head手信

 

Ngo5 aa3 maa1 mui5 jat6 dou1 wui5 zyu2 faan6 bei2 ngo5 sik6

我阿媽每日都會煮飯畀我食。

My mum cooks for me every day.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNoun; AdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我阿媽每日; 都煮飯畀我食

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/煮飯畀我食

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicate
Part of speech/VerbNounVerb
Words in sentence/

 

ngo5 zing2 zo2 go3 wun6 geoi6 bei2 ngo5 go3 zai2 waan2

我整咗個玩具畀我個仔玩。

I have made a toy for my son to play.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence整咗個玩具畀我個仔玩

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/個玩具

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head玩具

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicate
Part of speech/VerbNounVerb
Words in sentence/我個仔

 

Pivot of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我個
Head

 

keoi5 gong2 zo2 go3 bei3 mat6 bei2 ngo5 zi1

佢講咗個秘密畀我知。

He has told me a secret.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence講咗個秘密畀我知

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/個秘密

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head秘密

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicate
Part of speech/VerbNounVerb
Words in sentence/

 

zoeng1 lou5 si1 sung3 zo2 bun2 syu1 bei2 keoi5 tai2

張老師送咗本書畀佢睇。

Miss Cheung has given him a book to read.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence張老師送咗本書畀佢睇

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/本書

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicate
Part of speech/VerbNounVerb
Words in sentence/

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 136-139

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