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U10L6 Directional complement(方向補語)

Introduction

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, directional complement(方向補語)will be introduced.  Directional complement is a type of complement that indicates the direction of an action.  There are 3 categories of directional complement.  As each category has different properties and they can be combined based on a certain pattern, you should memorize which category does each directional complement belong to.

Category 1 of directional complement

嚟[lai4]去[heoi3]

 

Category 2 of directional complement

翻[faan1]

 

Category 3 of directional complement

上[soeng5]落[lok6]
開[hoi1]埋[maai4]
出[ceot1]入[jap6]
過[gwo3]起[hei2]
到[dou3]

Category 1: 嚟[lai4] and 去[heoi3] 

嚟[lai4] and 去[heoi3] are verb(動詞)that mean “to come” and “to go”.  They can be used as a complement(補語)to indicate the directions of action stated in the predicate.

 Directions of action
嚟[lai4]Towards the speaker
去[heoi3]Away from the speaker

 

The sentence structure for using directional complement is depending on whether its object is related with location or not; it is also possible for both kinds of object to be used in a sentence.

Sentence structures of using directional complement

Taking object related with location(Predicate) (Object)

= (Predicate + Complement) (Object)

Taking object not related with location(Predicate) (Complement)

= (Predicate + Object) (Complement)

Taking both objects related and not related with location(Predicate) (Complement)

= (Predicate + Object) (Complement + Object/ Cognate object)

 

Object related with location

aa3 maa1 giu3 nei5 haang4 heoi3 cyu4 fong4

阿媽叫你行去廚房。

Mum asks you to walk to the kitchen.

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence阿媽行去廚房

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

go2 go3 neoi5 zai2 hou2 geng1 gam2 paau2 lai4 ging2 cyu5

嗰個女仔好驚噉跑嚟警署。

That girl runs to the police station in panic.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbClauseNoun
Words in sentence嗰個女仔好驚噉跑嚟警署

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head女仔

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object not related with location

nei5 ting1 jat6 daa2 din6 waa2 heoi3 man6 haa5 laa1

你聽日打電話去問吓啦。

Call tomorrow to ask.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix 2Particle
Part of speechNounNounClauseVerbPredicative suffixParticle
Words in sentence聽日打電話去

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseVerb
Words in sentence/打電話

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/電話

 

nei5 zam1 bui1 seoi2 lai4 aa1

你斟杯水嚟吖。

Bring me a cup of water. (Literally: Pour a cup of water and come)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplementParticle
Part of speechNounClauseVerbParticle
Words in sentence斟杯水

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/杯水

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

maai5 di1 zau2 lai4 laa1

買啲酒嚟啦。

Buy and bring some alcohol here.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplementParticle
Part of speech/ClauseVerbParticle
Words in sentence/買啲酒

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/啲酒

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Taking both objects related and not related with location

ngo5 gei3 zo2 fan6 kau4 zik1 seon3 heoi3 go2 gaan1 gung1 si1

我寄咗份求職信去嗰間公司。

I have sent my letter of application to that company.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence寄咗份求職信去嗰間公司

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/份求職信

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head求職信

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/嗰間公司

 

Cognate object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰間
Head公司

 

ngo5 ling1 gan2 di1 je5 sik6 heoi3 nei5 hok6 haau6

我拎𡁵啲嘢食去你學校。

I am bringing some food to your school.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence拎𡁵啲嘢食去你學校

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/𡁵啲嘢食

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head嘢食

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/你學校

 

Cognate object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head學校

 

nei5 aa3 maa1 daa2 gwo3 din6 waa2 lai4 wan2 nei5

你阿媽打過電話嚟搵你。

Your mum has called here to find you.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounClauseVerbNoun
Words in sentence你阿媽打過電話嚟

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseVerb
Words in sentence/打過電話

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/電話

 

ngo5 zaa1 gan2 ce1 heoi3 nei5 gung1 si1 zip3 nei5

我揸𡁵車去你公司接你。

I am driving to your office to pick you up.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounClauseVerbNoun
Words in sentence揸𡁵車去你公司

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/揸𡁵車去你公司

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/𡁵

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/你公司

 

Cognate object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head公司

 

Category 2: 翻[faan1]

 Directions of action
翻[faan1]To take a roundabout or make something to take a roundabout

 

keoi5 giu3 ngo5 haang4 faan1 uk1 kei2

佢叫我行翻屋企。

He asks me to walk back to my home.  (I have walked out from my home and he asks me to go back, therefore, 翻 is used here as the acton has taken a roundabout)

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence行翻屋企

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

keoi5 hai2 jing1 gwok3 gei3 zo2 zoeng1 ming4 seon3 pin2 faan1 hoeng1 gong2

佢喺英國寄咗張明信片翻香港。

She has sent a postcard from Britain back to Hong Kong. (She flew to Britain from Hong Kong and has sent a postcard back to Hong Kong, therefore, 翻 is used here as the acton has taken a roundabout)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence喺英國寄咗張明信片翻香港

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Predicative suffix 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/英國張明信片

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/香港

 

Category 3: 上[soeng5]、落[lok6]、開[hoi1]、埋[maai4]、出[ceot1]、入[jap6]、過[gwo3]、起[hei2]、到[dou3]

These 9 verbs can be used as a complement to indicate the directions of actions.

 Directions of action
[soeng5]To go upward or move something upward
落[lok6]To go downward or move something downward
[hoi1]To open sideways or make something open sideways
[maai4]To close in from two sides or make something to close in from two sides
[ceot1]To go out or move something out
[jap6]To go in or move something in
[gwo3]To move over something or to make something move over something
[hei2]To jump up or to lift something upward temporarily
到[dou3]To reach a place or make something to reach a place

 

上[soeng5]

ngo5 soeng6 go3 sing1 kei4 jat6 haang4 zo2 soeng5 saan1 deng2

我上個星期日行咗上山頂。

I have walked up to the peak on last Sunday.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence上個星期日行咗上山頂

 

Adverbial of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier上個
Head星期日

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixComplement
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixVerb
Words in sentence/

 

keoi5 gaau1 zo2 di1 zing3 geoi3 soeng5 faat3 ting4

佢交咗啲證據上法庭。

She has submitted some evidences to the court.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speechNounClauseClause
Words in sentence交咗啲證據上法庭

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/啲證據

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/法庭

 

落[lok6]

lou5 si1 gaau3 lok6 ngo5 dei6 m4 jing1 goi1 tau1 je5

老師教落我哋唔應該偷嘢。

The teacher has taught us that we should not steal. (The belief of we should not steal was moved downward to students from the teacher)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClauseSentence
Words in sentence老師教落我哋唔應該偷嘢

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋應該偷嘢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

go2 go3 jan2 hai2 kiu4 soeng6 min6 tiu3 lok6 ho4 zi6 saat3

嗰個人喺橋上面跳落河自殺。

That man jumped down to the river from the bridge to commit suicide.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2Predicate 3
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClauseNounVerb
Words in sentence嗰個人橋上面跳落自殺

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier橋上
Head

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

開[hoi1]

haang4 hoi1 di1 laa1

行開啲啦!

Move away!

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate objectParticle
Part of speech/ClauseNounParticle
Words in sentence/行開

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

sei2 hoi1 laa1

死開啦!

Fuck off! (Move away)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplementParticle
Part of speech/VerbVerbParticle
Words in sentence/

 

lou5 si1 giu3 tung4 hok6 jat1 cai4 kin2 hoi1 bun2 syu1

老師叫同學一齊㨴開本書。

The teacher asks students to open the book.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNounAdverbClauseNoun
Words in sentence老師同學一齊㨴開本書

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

埋[maai4]

ngo5 dei6 co5 maai4 jat1 cai4 king1 gai3

我哋坐埋一齊傾偈。

We sit together to chat.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounClauseAdverbNounNoun
Words in sentence我哋坐埋一齊

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

keoi5 nei1 maai4 zo2

佢匿埋咗。

He has hidden himself.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffix
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffix
Words in sentence匿埋

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

aa3 mui2 seng4 jat6 dou1 m4 gei3 dak1 sau1 maai4 keoi5 di1 cin2

阿妹成日都唔記得收埋佢啲錢。

My sister always forgets to conceal her money.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNoun; adverb; adverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence阿妹成日; 都; 唔記得收埋佢啲錢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/收埋佢啲錢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢啲
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

duk6 daai6 hok6 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 seng4 jat6 zip3 maai4 zi6 gei2

讀大學嘅時候,我成日摺埋自己。

When I was studying in university, I always lock myself up.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence讀大學嘅時候我成日摺埋自己

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier讀大學
Head時候

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounClauseVerb
Words in sentence成日摺埋自己

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

出[ceot1]

ji5 jyun4 hoeng3 zing3 fu2 tai4 ceot1 kong3 ji5

議員向政府提出抗議。

Councilors have submitted an objection to the government.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence議員政府提出抗議

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

hung2 bou3 fan6 zi2 hoeng3 ging2 caat3 gaau1 ceot1 jan4 zi3

恐怖份子向警察交出人質。

Terrorists have sent the hostage to the police. (Literal meaning: Terrorists have handed out the hostage to the police.)

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence恐怖份子警察交出人質

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

hoeng1 gong2 paai3 ceot1 zo2 sap6 go3 wan6 dung6 jyun4 caam1 gaa1 go2 go3 bei2 coi3

香港派出咗十個運動員參加嗰個比賽。

Hong Kong has sent out 10 athletes to join that competition.

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixPivotPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence香港派出十個運動員參加嗰個比賽

 

Pivot of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier十個
Head運動員

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head比賽

 

mei5 gwok3 hoeng3 zung1 gwok3 tai4 ceot1 zeoi3 hau6 tung1 dip6

美國向中國提出最後通牒。

America has sent an ultimatum to China.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence美國中國提出最後通牒

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

入[jap6]

keoi5 haang4 jap6 mun4 hau2 go2 zan6,go3 go3 jan2 dou1 paak3 sau2 fun1 jing4 keoi5

佢行入門口嗰陣,個個人都拍手歡迎佢。

When he walks in, everyone claps their hands to welcome him.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence佢行入門口嗰陣個個人都拍手歡迎佢

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢行入門口嗰
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence個個人歡迎

 

gau2 zai2 tiu3 zo2 jap6 seoi2 dou6 gong3 wan1

狗仔跳咗入水度降溫。

The puppy has jumped into the water to cool himself down.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2
Part of speechNounClauseNounVerb
Words in sentence狗仔跳咗入水度降溫

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixComplement
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixVerb
Words in sentence/

 

go2 di1 cung1 jap6 fo2 ce1 zaang1 wai2 co5 ge3 jan4 hou2 mou5 lai5 maau6

嗰啲衝入火車爭位坐嘅人好冇禮貌。

Those who rush into the compartment and fight for their seats are impolite.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverbAdjective
Words in sentence嗰啲衝入火車爭位坐嘅人冇禮貌

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰啲衝入火車爭位坐
Head

 

過[gwo3] 

jau5 jat1 bou6 fei1 gei1 fei1 gwo3 zo2 saan1 deng2

有一部飛機飛過咗山頂。

A plane has flown over the top of the mountain.

Type of sentence structurePivotal construction
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePivotPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speech/VerbNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/一部飛機飛過山頂

 

Pivot of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一部
Head飛機

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

go2 zek3 maau1 tiu3 gwo3 zo2 zoeng1 toi2

嗰隻貓跳過咗張枱。

That cat has jumped over the table.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence嗰隻貓跳過張枱

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰隻
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

go2 go3 tin4 ging3 syun2 sau2 kwaa1 gwo3 saai3 di1 laan4

嗰個田徑選手跨過晒啲欄。

That athlete has jumped over a hurdle.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence嗰個田徑選手跨過啲欄

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head田徑選手

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

起[hei2] 

ngo5 pou5 hei2 zo2 ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5

我抱起咗我女朋友。

I have carried my girlfriend in my arms and lifted her up.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence抱起我女朋友

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head女朋友

 

cing1 git3 gung1 jan4 zap1 hei2 zo2 dei6 haa6 ge3 laap6 saap3

清潔工人執起咗地下嘅垃圾。

Cleaners have picked up the trash on the ground.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence清潔工人執起地下嘅垃圾

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier清潔
Head工人

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier地下
Head垃圾

 

fung1 ceoi1 hei2 zo2 hai2 dei6 haa6 ge3 jip6

風吹起咗喺地下嘅葉。

The wind has blown up leaves on the ground.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence吹起喺地下嘅葉

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier喺地下
Head

 

ngo5 geoi2 hei2 zo2 go3 jat1 baak3 bong6 ge3 aa2 ling4

我舉起咗個一百磅嘅啞鈴。

I have pushed up a dumbbell that weights 100 pounds.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounClausePredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence舉起個一百磅嘅啞鈴

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier個一百磅
Head啞鈴

 

到[dou3]

ngo5 cam4 maan5 gau2 dim2 faan1 dou3 uk1 kei2

我尋晚九點返到屋企。

I have arrived home at 9pm last night.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence尋晚九點返到屋企

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Adverbial of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier尋晚
Head九點

 

cam4 jat6 ngo5 dei6 gong2 dou3 bun2 gaau3 fo1 syu1 ge3 dai6 jat1 baak3 ling4 jat1 jip6

尋日我哋講到本教科書嘅第一百零一頁。

We stopped at the page 101 of the textbook yesterday. (Literal meaning: We have talked and arrived the page 101 of the textbook yesterday)

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence尋日我哋講到本教科書嘅第一百零一頁

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence我哋講到本教科書嘅第一百零一頁

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier本教科書嘅第一百零一
Head

 

ji1 gaa1 leon4 dou3 nei5

依家輪到你。

It is your turn now.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounClause
Words in sentence依家輪到你

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/輪到

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbVerb
Words in sentence/

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 116-124。

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