U10L6 Directional complement(方向補語)

Introduction

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, directional complement(方向補語)will be introduced.  Directional complement is a type of complement that indicates the direction of an action.  There are 3 categories of directional complement.  As each category has different properties and they can be combined based on a certain pattern, you should memorize which category does each directional complement belong to.

Category 1 of directional complement

嚟[lai4] 去[heoi3]

 

Category 2 of directional complement

翻[faan1]

 

Category 3 of directional complement

上[soeng5] 落[lok6]
開[hoi1] 埋[maai4]
出[ceot1] 入[jap6]
過[gwo3] 起[hei2]
到[dou3]

Category 1: 嚟[lai4] and 去[heoi3] 

嚟[lai4] and 去[heoi3] are verb(動詞)that mean “to come” and “to go”.  They can be used as a complement(補語)to indicate the directions of action stated in the predicate.

  Directions of action
嚟[lai4] Towards the speaker
去[heoi3] Away from the speaker

 

The sentence structure for using directional complement is depending on whether its object is related with location or not; it is also possible for both kinds of object to be used in a sentence.

Sentence structures of using directional complement

Taking object related with location (Predicate) (Object)

= (Predicate + Complement) (Object)

Taking object not related with location (Predicate) (Complement)

= (Predicate + Object) (Complement)

Taking both objects related and not related with location (Predicate) (Complement)

= (Predicate + Object) (Complement + Object/ Cognate object)

 

Object related with location

aa3 maa1 giu3 nei5 haang4 heoi3 cyu4 fong4

阿媽叫你行去廚房。

Mum asks you to walk to the kitchen.

Type of sentence structure Pivotal construction
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Pivot Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 阿媽 行去 廚房

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

go2 go3 neoi5 zai2 hou2 geng1 gam2 paau2 lai4 ging2 cyu5

嗰個女仔好驚噉跑嚟警署。

That girl runs to the police station in panic.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Clause Noun
Words in sentence 嗰個女仔 好驚噉 跑嚟 警署

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head 女仔

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object not related with location

nei5 ting1 jat6 daa2 din6 waa2 heoi3 man6 haa5 laa1

你聽日打電話去問吓啦。

Call tomorrow to ask.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate 1 Predicate 2 Predicative suffix 2 Particle
Part of speech Noun Noun Clause Verb Predicative suffix Particle
Words in sentence 聽日 打電話去

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Clause Verb
Words in sentence / 打電話

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 電話

 

nei5 zam1 bui1 seoi2 lai4 aa1

你斟杯水嚟吖。

Bring me a cup of water. (Literally: Pour a cup of water and come)

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement Particle
Part of speech Noun Clause Verb Particle
Words in sentence 斟杯水

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 杯水

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

maai5 di1 zau2 lai4 laa1

買啲酒嚟啦。

Buy and bring some alcohol here.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement Particle
Part of speech / Clause Verb Particle
Words in sentence / 買啲酒

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 啲酒

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Taking both objects related and not related with location

ngo5 gei3 zo2 fan6 kau4 zik1 seon3 heoi3 go2 gaan1 gung1 si1

我寄咗份求職信去嗰間公司。

I have sent my letter of application to that company.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech Noun Clause Clause
Words in sentence 寄咗份求職信 去嗰間公司

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 份求職信

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 求職信

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Cognate object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 嗰間公司

 

Cognate object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰間
Head 公司

 

ngo5 ling1 gan2 di1 je5 sik6 heoi3 nei5 hok6 haau6

我拎𡁵啲嘢食去你學校。

I am bringing some food to your school.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech Noun Clause Clause
Words in sentence 拎𡁵啲嘢食 去你學校

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 𡁵 啲嘢食

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 嘢食

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Cognate object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 你學校

 

Cognate object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 學校

 

nei5 aa3 maa1 daa2 gwo3 din6 waa2 lai4 wan2 nei5

你阿媽打過電話嚟搵你。

Your mum has called here to find you.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Clause Verb Noun
Words in sentence 你阿媽 打過電話嚟

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Clause Verb
Words in sentence / 打過電話

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 電話

 

ngo5 zaa1 gan2 ce1 heoi3 nei5 gung1 si1 zip3 nei5

我揸𡁵車去你公司接你。

I am driving to your office to pick you up.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Clause Verb Noun
Words in sentence 揸𡁵車去你公司

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Clause Clause
Words in sentence / 揸𡁵車 去你公司

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 𡁵

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Cognate object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 你公司

 

Cognate object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 公司

 

Category 2: 翻[faan1]

  Directions of action
翻[faan1] To take a roundabout or make something to take a roundabout

 

keoi5 giu3 ngo5 haang4 faan1 uk1 kei2

佢叫我行翻屋企。

He asks me to walk back to my home.  (I have walked out from my home and he asks me to go back, therefore, 翻 is used here as the acton has taken a roundabout)

Type of sentence structure Pivotal construction
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Pivot Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 行翻 屋企

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

keoi5 hai2 jing1 gwok3 gei3 zo2 zoeng1 ming4 seon3 pin2 faan1 hoeng1 gong2

佢喺英國寄咗張明信片翻香港。

She has sent a postcard from Britain back to Hong Kong. (She flew to Britain from Hong Kong and has sent a postcard back to Hong Kong, therefore, 翻 is used here as the acton has taken a roundabout)

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech Noun Clause Clause
Words in sentence 喺英國寄咗張明信片 翻香港

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Predicative suffix 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 英國 張明信片

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Cognate object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 香港

 

Category 3: 上[soeng5]、落[lok6]、開[hoi1]、埋[maai4]、出[ceot1]、入[jap6]、過[gwo3]、起[hei2]、到[dou3]

These 9 verbs can be used as a complement to indicate the directions of actions.

  Directions of action
[soeng5] To go upward or move something upward
落[lok6] To go downward or move something downward
[hoi1] To open sideways or make something open sideways
[maai4] To close in from two sides or make something to close in from two sides
[ceot1] To go out or move something out
[jap6] To go in or move something in
[gwo3] To move over something or to make something move over something
[hei2] To jump up or to lift something upward temporarily
到[dou3] To reach a place or make something to reach a place

 

上[soeng5]

ngo5 soeng6 go3 sing1 kei4 jat6 haang4 zo2 soeng5 saan1 deng2

我上個星期日行咗上山頂。

I have walked up to the peak on last Sunday.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 上個星期日 行咗上 山頂

 

Adverbial of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 上個
Head 星期日

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Complement
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Verb
Words in sentence /

 

keoi5 gaau1 zo2 di1 zing3 geoi3 soeng5 faat3 ting4

佢交咗啲證據上法庭。

She has submitted some evidences to the court.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech Noun Clause Clause
Words in sentence 交咗啲證據 上法庭

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 啲證據

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 法庭

 

落[lok6]

lou5 si1 gaau3 lok6 ngo5 dei6 m4 jing1 goi1 tau1 je5

老師教落我哋唔應該偷嘢。

The teacher has taught us that we should not steal. (The belief of we should not steal was moved downward to students from the teacher)

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Sentence
Words in sentence 老師 教落 我哋唔應該偷嘢

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我哋 應該 偷嘢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

go2 go3 jan2 hai2 kiu4 soeng6 min6 tiu3 lok6 ho4 zi6 saat3

嗰個人喺橋上面跳落河自殺。

That man jumped down to the river from the bridge to commit suicide.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2 Predicate 3
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Clause Noun Verb
Words in sentence 嗰個人 橋上面 跳落 自殺

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 橋上
Head

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

開[hoi1]

haang4 hoi1 di1 laa1

行開啲啦!

Move away!

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Cognate object Particle
Part of speech / Clause Noun Particle
Words in sentence / 行開

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

sei2 hoi1 laa1

死開啦!

Fuck off! (Move away)

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement Particle
Part of speech / Verb Verb Particle
Words in sentence /

 

lou5 si1 giu3 tung4 hok6 jat1 cai4 kin2 hoi1 bun2 syu1

老師叫同學一齊㨴開本書。

The teacher asks students to open the book.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Pivot Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun Adverb Clause Noun
Words in sentence 老師 同學 一齊 㨴開 本書

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

埋[maai4]

ngo5 dei6 co5 maai4 jat1 cai4 king1 gai3

我哋坐埋一齊傾偈。

We sit together to chat.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Clause Adverb Noun Noun
Words in sentence 我哋 坐埋 一齊

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

keoi5 nei1 maai4 zo2

佢匿埋咗。

He has hidden himself.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix
Words in sentence 匿埋

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

aa3 mui2 seng4 jat6 dou1 m4 gei3 dak1 sau1 maai4 keoi5 di1 cin2

阿妹成日都唔記得收埋佢啲錢。

My sister always forgets to conceal her money.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Noun; adverb; adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 阿妹 成日; 都; 唔 記得 收埋佢啲錢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Clause Noun
Words in sentence / 收埋 佢啲錢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 佢啲
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

duk6 daai6 hok6 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 seng4 jat6 zip3 maai4 zi6 gei2

讀大學嘅時候,我成日摺埋自己。

When I was studying in university, I always lock myself up.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Noun Sentence
Words in sentence 讀大學嘅時候 我成日摺埋自己

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 讀大學
Head 時候

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Noun Clause Verb
Words in sentence 成日 摺埋 自己

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

出[ceot1]

ji5 jyun4 hoeng3 zing3 fu2 tai4 ceot1 kong3 ji5

議員向政府提出抗議。

Councilors have submitted an objection to the government.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 議員 政府 提出 抗議

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

hung2 bou3 fan6 zi2 hoeng3 ging2 caat3 gaau1 ceot1 jan4 zi3

恐怖份子向警察交出人質。

Terrorists have sent the hostage to the police. (Literal meaning: Terrorists have handed out the hostage to the police.)

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 恐怖份子 警察 交出 人質

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

hoeng1 gong2 paai3 ceot1 zo2 sap6 go3 wan6 dung6 jyun4 caam1 gaa1 go2 go3 bei2 coi3

香港派出咗十個運動員參加嗰個比賽。

Hong Kong has sent out 10 athletes to join that competition.

Type of sentence structure Pivotal construction
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Pivot Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 香港 派出 十個運動員 參加 嗰個比賽

 

Pivot of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 十個
Head 運動員

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head 比賽

 

mei5 gwok3 hoeng3 zung1 gwok3 tai4 ceot1 zeoi3 hau6 tung1 dip6

美國向中國提出最後通牒。

America has sent an ultimatum to China.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 美國 中國 提出 最後通牒

 

Predicate 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

入[jap6]

keoi5 haang4 jap6 mun4 hau2 go2 zan6,go3 go3 jan2 dou1 paak3 sau2 fun1 jing4 keoi5

佢行入門口嗰陣,個個人都拍手歡迎佢。

When he walks in, everyone claps their hands to welcome him.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Noun Sentence
Words in sentence 佢行入門口嗰陣 個個人都拍手歡迎佢

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 佢行入門口嗰
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 個個人 歡迎

 

gau2 zai2 tiu3 zo2 jap6 seoi2 dou6 gong3 wan1

狗仔跳咗入水度降溫。

The puppy has jumped into the water to cool himself down.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2
Part of speech Noun Clause Noun Verb
Words in sentence 狗仔 跳咗入 水度 降溫

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Complement
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Verb
Words in sentence /

 

go2 di1 cung1 jap6 fo2 ce1 zaang1 wai2 co5 ge3 jan4 hou2 mou5 lai5 maau6

嗰啲衝入火車爭位坐嘅人好冇禮貌。

Those who rush into the compartment and fight for their seats are impolite.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 嗰啲衝入火車爭位坐嘅人 冇禮貌

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰啲衝入火車爭位坐
Head

 

過[gwo3] 

jau5 jat1 bou6 fei1 gei1 fei1 gwo3 zo2 saan1 deng2

有一部飛機飛過咗山頂。

A plane has flown over the top of the mountain.

Type of sentence structure Pivotal construction
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Pivot Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 一部飛機 飛過 山頂

 

Pivot of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一部
Head 飛機

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

go2 zek3 maau1 tiu3 gwo3 zo2 zoeng1 toi2

嗰隻貓跳過咗張枱。

That cat has jumped over the table.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 嗰隻貓 跳過 張枱

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰隻
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

go2 go3 tin4 ging3 syun2 sau2 kwaa1 gwo3 saai3 di1 laan4

嗰個田徑選手跨過晒啲欄。

That athlete has jumped over a hurdle.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 嗰個田徑選手 跨過 啲欄

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head 田徑選手

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

起[hei2] 

ngo5 pou5 hei2 zo2 ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5

我抱起咗我女朋友。

I have carried my girlfriend in my arms and lifted her up.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 抱起 我女朋友

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 女朋友

 

cing1 git3 gung1 jan4 zap1 hei2 zo2 dei6 haa6 ge3 laap6 saap3

清潔工人執起咗地下嘅垃圾。

Cleaners have picked up the trash on the ground.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 清潔工人 執起 地下嘅垃圾

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 清潔
Head 工人

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 地下
Head 垃圾

 

fung1 ceoi1 hei2 zo2 hai2 dei6 haa6 ge3 jip6

風吹起咗喺地下嘅葉。

The wind has blown up leaves on the ground.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 吹起 喺地下嘅葉

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 喺地下
Head

 

ngo5 geoi2 hei2 zo2 go3 jat1 baak3 bong6 ge3 aa2 ling4

我舉起咗個一百磅嘅啞鈴。

I have pushed up a dumbbell that weights 100 pounds.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 舉起 個一百磅嘅啞鈴

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 個一百磅
Head 啞鈴

 

到[dou3]

ngo5 cam4 maan5 gau2 dim2 faan1 dou3 uk1 kei2

我尋晚九點返到屋企。

I have arrived home at 9pm last night.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 尋晚九點 返到 屋企

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Adverbial of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 尋晚
Head 九點

 

cam4 jat6 ngo5 dei6 gong2 dou3 bun2 gaau3 fo1 syu1 ge3 dai6 jat1 baak3 ling4 jat1 jip6

尋日我哋講到本教科書嘅第一百零一頁。

We stopped at the page 101 of the textbook yesterday. (Literal meaning: We have talked and arrived the page 101 of the textbook yesterday)

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Noun Sentence
Words in sentence 尋日 我哋講到本教科書嘅第一百零一頁

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Clause Noun
Words in sentence 我哋 講到 本教科書嘅第一百零一頁

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 本教科書嘅第一百零一
Head

 

ji1 gaa1 leon4 dou3 nei5

依家輪到你。

It is your turn now.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Noun Clause
Words in sentence 依家 輪到你

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Clause Noun
Words in sentence / 輪到

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-complement
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Complement
Part of speech / Verb Verb
Words in sentence /

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 116-124。

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