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U11L1 Coordination(並列式)Part I

 

Coordination(並列式)is a structure for combining two or more elements together to create a new word.  The importance for those elements in the new word is the same and they should possess the same part of speech(詞性); except the new word is created according to the method 1, the meaning of the new word would not be changed even if the order of those elements has been changed.

The following are the methods for creating coordination.  In this lesson, method 1 will be introduced.

Methods of creating coordination

Method 1Simply putting those words side by side to connect them together as a single element
Method 2Using punctuation、(頓號) to connect words together as a single element
Method 3Using particle(助詞)to connect words together as a single element
Method 4Using conjunction(連詞)to connect words together as a single element
Method 5Using prepositional conjunction(介詞性連詞)to connect words together as a single element

 

Table of contents

Method 1

With method 1, you can connect words with the same part of speech together by simply putting those words side by side, and those created words are actually called polymer(聚合詞).  Unlike words created with other methods, the word order of polymer is fixed, as they are resulted from many people saying it in an identical way.

Most of the polymer are created by combining noun(名詞)together.

ngo5 ji5 ging1 si3 gwo3 saai3 jan4 sang1 ge3 tim4 syun1 fu2 laat6

我已經試過晒人生嘅甜酸苦辣。

I have tried the bittersweet in life. (Literal meaning: sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and spiciness in life)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence已經過; 晒人生嘅甜酸苦辣

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier人生
Head甜酸苦辣

 

coi2 hung4 ge3 ngaan4 sik1 hai6 hung4 caang2 wong4 luk6 ceng1 laam4 zi2

彩虹嘅顏色係紅橙黃綠青藍紫。

The color of rainbow is red, orange, yellow, green, indigo, blue and violet.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounLinking verbNoun
Words in sentence彩虹嘅顏色紅橙黃綠青藍紫

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4Noun 5Noun 6Noun 7
Words in sentence

 

jat1 saam1 ng5 cat1 gau2 hai6 daan1 sou3

一三五七九係單數。

One, three, five, seven and nine are odd number.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounLinking verbNoun
Words in sentence一三五七九單數

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4Noun 5
Words in sentence

 

ji6 sei3 luk6 baat3 sap6 hai6 soeng1 sou3

二四六八十係雙數。

Two, four, six, eight and ten are even number.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounLinking verbNoun
Words in sentence二四六八十雙數

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4Noun 5
Words in sentence

 

ng5 hang4 hai6 gam1 muk6 seoi2 fo2 tou2

五行係金木水火土。

The Five Elements are Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounLinking verbNoun
Words in sentence五行金木水火土

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4Noun 5
Words in sentence

 

zi2 naam4 zam1 ge3 sei3 go3 fong1 hoeng3 hai6 dung1 naam4 sai1 bak1

指南針嘅四個方向係東南西北。

The four directions on compass are East, South, West and North.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounLinking verbNoun
Words in sentence指南針嘅四個方向東南西北

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier指南針
Head四個方向

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4
Words in sentence西

 

ngo5 dei6 jiu3 sek3 ngo5 dei6 ge3 hing1 dai6 zi2 mui6

我哋要惜我哋嘅兄弟姊妹。

We have to love our brothers and sisters. (Literal meaning: older brother, younger brother, older sister and younger sister)

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋惜我哋嘅兄弟姊妹

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/我哋嘅兄弟姊妹

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋
Head兄弟姊妹

 

ni1 go3 jau4 hei3 naam4 neoi5 lou5 jau3 dou1 ngaam1 waan2

呢個遊戲男女老幼都啱玩。

This game is suitable for everyone. (Literal meaning: men, women, the old and the young)

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence呢個遊戲男女老幼都啱玩

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence男女老幼

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4
Words in sentence

 

nei5 sik1 m4 sik1 fan1 dung1 naam4 sai1 bak1 aa3

你識唔識分東南西北啊?

Do you know how to distinguish directions?

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceCompound sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueTrueFalse
Words in sentence你識唔識分東南西北啊

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClauseParticle
Words in sentence(分東南西北)(啊)

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/(分)(東南西北)

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4
Words in sentence(東)(南)(西)(北)

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClauseParticle
Words in sentence(你)分東南西北

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/東南西北

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechNoun 1Noun 2Noun 3Noun 4
Words in sentence西

 

go2 go3 laan5 jan4 zi2 hai6 sik1 waan2 sik6 fan3

嗰個懶人只係識玩食瞓。

That lazy bone only knows how to play, eat and sleep.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence嗰個懶人只係玩食瞓

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head懶人

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechVerb 1Verb 2Verb 3
Words in sentence

 

gou1 ai2 fei4 sau3 ngo5 cyun4 bou6 dou1 ngaam1

高矮肥瘦我全部都啱。

The tall, the short, the chubby and the skinny, I like all of them.  (Literal meaning: The tall girls, the short girls, the chubby girls and the skinny girls, they are all suitable for me)

 

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechAdjectiveSentence
Words in sentence高矮肥瘦我全部都啱

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; adverbVerb
Words in sentence全部; 都

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Part of speechAdjective 1Adjective 2Adjective 3Adjective 4
Words in sentence

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 234-242

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