U12L1 Particle 啊[aa3]

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the usage of using particle 啊[aa3] outside interrogative sentences(疑問句)and imperative sentences(祈使句)will be introduced.  In Unit 7 Lesson 9 and Unit 8 Lesson 5, you have learnt that particle(助詞)啊[aa3] can be used to soften an interrogative sentence(疑問句)and an imperative sentence(祈使句).  Nevertheless, 啊[aa3] can be used to soften a sentence other than interrogative sentence(疑問句)and imperative sentence(祈使句).

hai6 aa3

係啊。

Yes.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateParticle
Part of speech/VerbParticle
Words in sentence/

 

m4 hai6 aa3

唔係啊。

No.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateParticle
Part of speech/AdverbVerbParticle
Words in sentence/

 

m4 goi1 saai3 aa3

唔該晒啊。

Thank you.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixParticle
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixParticle
Words in sentence/唔該

 

ngo5 kei4 sat6 hou2 zung1 ji3 nei5 aa3

我其實好中意你啊。

Actually I really like you.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounAdverb; AdverbVerbNounParticle
Words in sentence其實; 好中意
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ting1 jat6 hai6 sing1 kei4 luk6 aa3

聽日係星期六啊。

Tomorrow is Saturday.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounLinking verbNounParticle
Words in sentence聽日星期六

 

ngo5 ji1 gaa1 zou6 gan2 je5,m4 dak1 haan4 aa3

我依家做𡁵嘢,唔得閒啊。

Because I am working now, I am not free.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueTrueFalse
Words in sentence我依家做𡁵嘢唔得閒啊

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence依家𡁵

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateParticle
Part of speech/AdverbAdjectiveParticle
Words in sentence/得閒

 

keoi5 faan1 gan2 gung1 aa3

佢返𡁵工啊。

He is working now.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObjectParticle
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNounParticle
Words in sentence𡁵

 

ngo5 go3 pang4 jau5 hai6 lou5 si1 aa3

我個朋友係老師啊。

My friend is a teacher.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounVerbNounParticle
Words in sentence我個朋友老師

 

ngo5 soeng2 hok6 hou2 gwong2 dung1 waa2 aa3

我想學好廣東話啊。

I want to learn Cantonese well.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClauseParticle
Words in sentence學好廣東話

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/學好廣東話

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/VerbAdjective
Words in sentence/

 

ngo5 gam1 maan1 soeng2 jam2 zau2 jam2 dou3 zeoi3 aa3

我今晚想飲酒飲到醉啊。

I want to drink until drunk tonight.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObjectParticle
Part of speechNounNounAuxiliary verbClauseParticle
Words in sentence今晚飲酒飲到醉

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/ClauseClause
Words in sentence/飲酒飲到醉

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Complement of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/Verb; /Adjective
Words in sentence/飲; 到

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 188-190
  2. 鄧思穎(2017)。粤語語法講義。香港:商務印書館,頁 279

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