U2L16 Contraction related with 嘅[ge3]

Table of contents

Introduction

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, contraction related with 嘅[ge3] will be introduced.  Since Unit 2 Lesson 5, we have learnt how to use 嘅[ge3] in subordination(偏正式)to modify a noun(名詞); in Unit 1 Lesson 2, we have also learnt how to use 係[hai6] to indicate the subject(主語)equals with the object(賓語)based on subject-predicative(主謂式).  When we are using 係 to indicate the subject and the object is identical and its object has been modified in subordination with 嘅[ge3], the head(端語)that being modified are usually omitted.  In the following, the blanketed sentences are not shortened.

zi1 bat1 hai6 ngo5 ge3

支筆係我嘅。(支筆係我嘅筆)

The pen is mine.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence支筆我嘅

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Keoi5 bou6 ce1 hai6 hung4 sik1 ge3

佢部車係紅色嘅。(佢部車係紅色嘅車)

His/Her car is red.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence佢部車紅色嘅

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢部
Head

 

Ni1 joeng6 je5 sik6 m4 laat6 ge3

呢樣嘢食唔辣嘅。(呢樣嘢食係唔辣嘅嘢食)

This food is not spicy.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence呢樣嘢食唔辣嘅

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢樣
Head嘢食

 

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Go2 bun2 syu1 hai6 ngo5 ge3

嗰本書係我嘅。(嗰本書係我嘅書)

That book is mine.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence嗰本書我嘅

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰本
Head

 

ni1 fuk1 waa2 hai6 ngo5 waak6 ge3

呢幅畫係我畫嘅。(呢幅畫係我畫嘅畫)

This painting is drawn by me.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence呢副畫我畫嘅

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢副
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我畫嘅
Head(畫)

 

keoi5 deng2 mou2 hai6 luk6 sik1 ge3

佢頂帽係綠色嘅。(佢頂帽係綠色嘅帽)

His hat is green.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence佢頂帽綠色嘅(帽)

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier佢頂
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier綠色
Head(帽)

 

doe2 faa1 hai6 hung4 sik1 ge3

朵花係紅色嘅。(朵花係紅色嘅花)

The flower is red.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence朵花紅色嘅(花)

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier紅色
Head(花)

 

go2 po1 syu6 di1 syu6 jip6 hai6 caang2 sik1 ge3

嗰棵樹啲樹葉係橙色嘅。(嗰棵樹啲樹葉係橙色嘅樹葉)

The leaves of that tree are orange.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence嗰棵樹啲樹葉橙色嘅(樹葉)

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰棵樹啲
Head樹葉

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier橙色
Head(樹葉)

 

It is not necessary that the omitted word equals to the noun in the subject.  You can omit it as long as it represents the noun in the subject in a boarder sense.

keoi5 dei6 hai6 so4 ge3

佢哋係傻嘅。(佢哋係傻嘅人)

They are dumb.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence佢哋傻嘅(人)

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head(人)

 

hok6 kam4 hai6 hou2 gwai3 ge3

學琴係好貴嘅。(學琴係好貴嘅活動)

To learn playing piano is expansive.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechClauseVerbNoun
Words in sentence學琴好貴嘅(活動)

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier好貴
Head(活動)

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 72, 198-200

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