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U5L5 Adjectives in superior degree(比較級)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the method of comparing two nouns with adjective in Cantonese will be explained.  過[gwo3] is a phase complement(狀態補語)and it is used in the structure of predicative-complement(謂補式)to compare the subject and the object.  A more in-depth explanation on predicative-complement(謂補式)and phase complement(狀態補語)is available in Unit 10 Lesson 1 and Unit 10 Lesson 2.

hoeng1 gong2 jan4 jau5 lai5 maau6 gwo3 daai6 luk6 jan4

香港人有禮貌過大陸人。

Hongkongers are politer than mainlander.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence香港人有禮貌過大陸人

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/有禮貌

 

Ni1 go3 neoi5 zai2 leng3 gwo3 go2 go3 neoi5 zai2

呢個女仔靚過嗰個女仔。

This girl is prettier than that girl.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence呢個女仔靚過嗰個女仔

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢個
Head女仔

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head女仔

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/

 

ni1 bou6 din6 daan1 ce1 faai3 gwo3 go2 bou6 din6 daan1 ce1

呢部電單車快過嗰部電單車。

This motorcycle is faster than that motorcycle.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence呢部電單車快過嗰部電單車

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢部
Head電單車

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰部
Head電單車

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/

 

gam1 jat6 hou2 tin1 gwo3 cam4 jat6

今日好天過尋日。

The weather of today is better than yesterday.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounClauseNoun
Words in sentence今日好天過尋日

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/好天

Table of contents

Negating

When negating these sentences adverb 唔[m4] is used with 係[hai6].  This negating structure is the same with what you have learnt in Unit 1 Lesson 2.

hoeng1 gong2 jan4 m4 hai6 jau5 lai5 maau6 gwo3 daai6 luk6 jan4

香港人唔係有禮貌過大陸人。

Hongkongers are not politer than mainlander.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbLinking verbClause
Words in sentence香港人有禮貌過大陸人

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/有禮貌過大陸人

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/有禮貌

 

Ni1 go3 neoi5 zai2 m4 hai6 leng3 gwo3 go2 go3 neoi5 zai2

呢個女仔唔係靚過嗰個女仔。

This girl is not prettier than that girl.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbLinking verbClause
Words in sentence呢個女仔靚過嗰個女仔

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢部
Head女仔

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/靚過嗰個女仔

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰個
Head女仔

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/

 

ni1 bou6 din6 daan1 ce1 m4 hai6 faai3 gwo3 go2 bou6 din6 daan1 ce1

呢部電單車唔係快過嗰部電單車。

This motorcycle is not faster than that motorcycle.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbLinking verbClause
Words in sentence呢部電單車快過嗰部電單車

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢部
Head電單車

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/快過嗰部電單車

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰部
Head電單車

 

gam1 jat6 m4 hai6 hou2 tin1 gwo3 cam4 jat6

今日唔係好天過尋日。

The weather of today is not better than yesterday.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbLinking verbClause
Words in sentence今日好天過尋日

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/ClauseNoun
Words in sentence/好天過尋日

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/AdjectiveComplement
Words in sentence/好天

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 374

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