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U5L8 Contraction of sentences created with 過[gwo3]

 

You have learnt how to use 過[gwo3] to compare the subject and the object of a sentence with an adjective back in Unit 5 Lesson 5.  Those sentences can be shortened with the use of cognate object(同指賓語)or complement(補語).  In this lesson, contraction created with the use of cognate object will be first introduced; contraction created with the use of complement will be introduced in Unit 10 Lesson 2.

According to what you have learnt about cognate object in Unit 2 Lesson 14, it can be used to indicate the extent of an adjective.  Therefore, 啲[di1] can be used in sentences created by 過 for indicating the extent of the subject differ from the object.

keoi5 leng3 gwo3 ngo5 aa3 maa1 di1

佢靚過我阿媽啲。

She is a little bit more beautiful than my mum.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectCognate object
Part of speechNounClauseNounNoun
Words in sentence靚過我阿媽

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/Adjective/
Words in sentence/

 

Nevertheless, in daily conversation, with the aid of context, the above sentence will not be said, and it will be contracted into the following.

 

keoi5 leng3 di1

佢靚啲。

She is more beautiful (than my mum).

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectCognate object
Part of speechNounClauseNounNoun
Words in sentence靚(過)(我阿媽)

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-complement
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateComplement
Part of speech/Adjective/
Words in sentence/(過)

 

You can now understand its structure as simply as the following.

 

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speechNounAdjectiveNoun
Words in sentence

 

daai6 ban6 zoeng6 cung2 di1

大笨象重啲。

Elephants are heavier.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speechNounAdjectiveNoun
Words in sentence大笨象

 

san1 gaa3 bo1 sai3 di1

新加坡細啲。

Singapore is smaller.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speechNounAdjectiveNoun
Words in sentence新加坡

 

dim2 sam1 hou2 mei6 di1

點心好味啲。

Dim Sum is more delicious.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speechNounAdjectiveNoun
Words in sentence點心好味

 

zik6 sing1 gei1 faai3 di1

直升機快啲。

Helicopters are faster.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateCognate object
Part of speechNounAdjectiveNoun
Words in sentence直升機

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 374

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