U6L2 Composite sentence(複句)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, composite sentence(複句)and compound sentences(並列句)will be introduced.  Composite sentence(複句)is referring to a sentence that is created by combining two or more sentences together.  In Cantonese, composite sentence can be divided as the following 3 types.  Each type of composite sentence has a set of specific usages associated with it.  It is crucial for you to recognize and memorize their difference.

Composite sentence

Compound sentences(並列句) Complex sentences(偏正句) Pregnant sentences(包孕句)

 

In this lesson, compound sentences(並列句)will be introduced.  Compound sentences are a type of composite sentence that all of its components, except being a question, possess a true value(真假值)of either true or false.

The usages of compound sentences can be divided into the followings:

Usages of compound sentences

Usage 1

Cumulative sentences(積累句)

To present sentences with similar meanings together; their sentence structure may or may not be similar with each other.
Usage 2

Disjunctive senences(離接句)

To offer an option for each of its sentences for selection.

Related sentence: Disjunctive question(選擇問句)

Usage 3

Successive sentences(承接句)

To present sentences that their meanings are similar and related but progressing from the beginning to the end.
Usage 4

Adversative sentences(轉折句)

To present two contradicting sentences.

Related words: 但係[daan6 hai6]、不過[bat1 gwo3]

Usage 5

Clause of causes or reasons(因果句)

To indicate, to interpret or to describe the cause-effect relationship.

Related words: 因為[jan1 wai6]、所以[so2 ji5]

 

True value(真假值)

True value(真假值)is used to indicate if a component is a true, a false, or an unknown fact in terms of grammar. Take a look at the following examples.  Sentences within compound sentences has to possess a true value of true or false but not unknown.  An interrogative sentence(疑問句)always possess an unknown true value.

True value

True She is beautiful.
False She is not beautiful.
Unknown If she is beautiful, I will…
Unknown Is she beautiful?

Usage 1

In this lesson, usage 1 will be explained.  Two or more sentences with similar meanings and structures can be combined together as compound sentences.

soeng2 hok6 jat6 man2 ge3 jan4 paai4 ni1 tiu4 deoi2,soeng2 hok6 hon4 man2 ge3 jan4 paai4 go2 tiu4 deoi2

想學日文嘅人排呢條隊,想學韓文嘅人排嗰條隊。

Line up here if you want to learn Japanese, line up there if you want to learn Korean.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 想學日文嘅人排呢條隊 想學韓文嘅人排嗰條隊

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 想學日文嘅人 呢條隊

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 想學日文
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 呢條
Head

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 想學韓文嘅人 嗰條隊

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 想學韓文
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰條
Head

 

gam1 go3 syu2 gaa3 ngo5 heoi3 zo2 jing1 gwok3,keoi5 heoi3 zo2 faat3 gwok3

今個暑假我去咗英國,佢去咗法國。

I went to Britain and he went to France in this summer vacation.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 今個暑假我去咗英國 佢去咗法國

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate
Part of speech Noun Sentence
Words in sentence 今個暑假 我去咗英國

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Cognate object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 英國

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Cognate object
Part of speech / Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence / 法國

 

ngo5 zung1 ji3 sik6 caang2,keoi5 zung1 ji3 sik6 ping4 gwo2

我中意食橙,佢中意食蘋果。

I like eating orange and he likes eating apple.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 我中意食橙 佢中意食蘋果

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 中意 食橙

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 中意 食蘋果

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 蘋果

 

ngo5 bong1 nei5 zyu2 faan6,nei5 zi1 hau6 bong1 ngo5 sai2 wun2

我幫你煮飯,你之後幫我洗碗。

I help you cook the meal and you help me wash dishes afterwards.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 我幫你煮飯 你之後幫我洗碗

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech Noun Noun Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 之後

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 280-288。

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