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U6L2 Composite sentence(複句)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, composite sentence(複句)and compound sentences(並列句)will be introduced.  Composite sentence(複句)is referring to a sentence that is created by combining two or more sentences together.  In Cantonese, composite sentence can be divided as the following 3 types.  Each type of composite sentence has a set of specific usages associated with it.  It is crucial for you to recognize and memorize their difference.

Composite sentence

Compound sentences(並列句)Complex sentences(偏正句)Pregnant sentences(包孕句)

 

In this lesson, compound sentences(並列句)will be introduced.  Compound sentences are a type of composite sentence that all of its components, except being a question, possess a true value(真假值)of either true or false.

The usages of compound sentences can be divided into the followings:

Usages of compound sentences

Usage 1

Cumulative sentences(積累句)

To present sentences with similar meanings together; their sentence structure may or may not be similar with each other.
Usage 2

Disjunctive senences(離接句)

To offer an option for each of its sentences for selection.

Related sentence: Disjunctive question(選擇問句)

Usage 3

Successive sentences(承接句)

To present sentences that their meanings are similar and related but progressing from the beginning to the end.
Usage 4

Adversative sentences(轉折句)

To present two contradicting sentences.

Related words: 但係[daan6 hai6]、不過[bat1 gwo3]

Usage 5

Clause of causes or reasons(因果句)

To indicate, to interpret or to describe the cause-effect relationship.

Related words: 因為[jan1 wai6]、所以[so2 ji5]

 

True value(真假值)

True value(真假值)is used to indicate if a component is a true, a false, or an unknown fact in terms of grammar. Take a look at the following examples.  Sentences within compound sentences has to possess a true value of true or false but not unknown.  An interrogative sentence(疑問句)always possess an unknown true value.

True value

TrueShe is beautiful.
FalseShe is not beautiful.
UnknownIf she is beautiful, I will…
UnknownIs she beautiful?

Usage 1

In this lesson, usage 1 will be explained.  Two or more sentences with similar meanings and structures can be combined together as compound sentences.

soeng2 hok6 jat6 man2 ge3 jan4 paai4 ni1 tiu4 deoi2,soeng2 hok6 hon4 man2 ge3 jan4 paai4 go2 tiu4 deoi2

想學日文嘅人排呢條隊,想學韓文嘅人排嗰條隊。

Line up here if you want to learn Japanese, line up there if you want to learn Korean.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceCompound sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueTrueTrue
Words in sentence想學日文嘅人排呢條隊想學韓文嘅人排嗰條隊

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence想學日文嘅人呢條隊

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier想學日文
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢條
Head

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence想學韓文嘅人嗰條隊

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier想學韓文
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier嗰條
Head

 

gam1 go3 syu2 gaa3 ngo5 heoi3 zo2 jing1 gwok3,keoi5 heoi3 zo2 faat3 gwok3

今個暑假我去咗英國,佢去咗法國。

I went to Britain and he went to France in this summer vacation.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceCompound sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueTrueTrue
Words in sentence今個暑假我去咗英國佢去咗法國

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence今個暑假我去咗英國

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixCognate object
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence英國

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixCognate object
Part of speech/VerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence/法國

 

ngo5 zung1 ji3 sik6 caang2,keoi5 zung1 ji3 sik6 ping4 gwo2

我中意食橙,佢中意食蘋果。

I like eating orange and he likes eating apple.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceCompound sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueTrueTrue
Words in sentence我中意食橙佢中意食蘋果

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence中意食橙

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence中意食蘋果

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/蘋果

 

ngo5 bong1 nei5 zyu2 faan6,nei5 zi1 hau6 bong1 ngo5 sai2 wun2

我幫你煮飯,你之後幫我洗碗。

I help you cook the meal and you help me wash dishes afterwards.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceCompound sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueTrueTrue
Words in sentence我幫你煮飯你之後幫我洗碗

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounNounPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence之後

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 280-288。

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