U6L3 Correlative conjunction(相關連詞)Part I

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, correlative conjunctions(相關連詞)will be introduced.  Correlative conjunctions are created by using adverbial conjunctions(副詞性連詞)or conjunctions(連詞)together or by repeating itself in a sentence; conjunction is placed before the subject of a sentence and adverbial conjunction is placed after the subject of a sentence like an adverb(副詞).  In this lesson, correlative conjunctions that repeat itself will be introduced first.

Correlative conjunctions

Combination Meaning
越[jyut6]…越[jyut6] The more…the more
一邊[jat1 bin1]…一邊[jat1 bin1] To do something while doing another thing
又[jau6]…又[jau6] …and…
一係[jat1 hai6]…一係[jat1 hai6] Either…or

 

nei5 jyut6 naau6 keoi5,keoi5 jyut6 zang1 nei5

你越鬧佢,佢越憎你。

The more you scold him, the more he hates you.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 你越鬧佢 佢越憎你

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence

 

When sentences connected by 越…越 or 又…又 is too short, they will be spoken and written as if they are a single sentence.

ngo5 jyut6 lei4 jyut6 zung1 ji3 ni1 go3 neoi5 zai2 

我越嚟越中意呢個女仔。

I like this girl more and more as time passes.

***嚟[lei4] is a dummy verb and it does not possess any meaning; it is used to fill up the first predicate slot.  More on dummy verb will be explained in a future lesson.

 

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 我越嚟 越中意呢個女仔

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Dummy verb
Words in sentence

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence (我) 中意 呢個女仔

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 呢個
Head 女仔

 

go2 go3 sai3 lou6 jau6 cou4 jau6 sing6,zan1 hai6 hou2 baak3 jim3

嗰個細佬又嘈又盛,真係好白厭。

That kid is noisy and naughty.

***[sing6] is a dummy verb as well and it does not possess any meaning; it is used to fill up the second predicate slot.  More on dummy verb will be explained in a future lesson.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3
True value True True True
Words in sentence 嗰個細佬又嘈 又盛 真係好白厭

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 嗰個細佬

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head 細佬

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Dummy verb
Words in sentence (嗰個細佬)

 

Sentence 3 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence (嗰個細佬) 真係; 好 白厭

 

gam1 jat6 jau6 jit6 jau6 guk6

今日又熱又焗。

Today is hot and stuffy.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 今日又熱 又焗

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 今日

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence (今日)

 

jat1 hai6 nei5 gam1 jat6 lau4 jat1 go3 zung1 tong4,jat1 hai6 ting3 jat6 lau4 loeng5 go3 zung1 tong4

一係你今日留一個鐘堂,一係聽日留兩個鐘堂。

You either stay in detention class today for an hour or stay in detention class tomorrow for two hours.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value Unknown Unknown
Words in sentence 一係你今日留一個鐘堂 一係聽日留兩個鐘堂

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Conjunctions Subject Adverbial Predicate Cognate object Object
Part of speech Conjunctions Noun Adverb Verb Noun Noun
Words in sentence 一係 今日 一個鐘

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一個
Head

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Conjunctions Subject Adverbial Predicate Cognate object Object
Part of speech Conjunctions / Adverb Verb Noun Noun
Words in sentence 一係 / 聽日 兩個鐘

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 兩個
Head

 

ngo5 jat1 bin1 daa2 gei1jat1 bin1 zou6 gung1 fo3

我一邊打機,一邊做功課。

I play computer game while doing homework.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 我一邊打機 一邊做功課

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 一邊

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate Object
Part of speech / Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 一邊 功課

 

go2 go3 neoi5 zai2 jau6 daai6 bo1jau6 daai6 lo1

嗰個女仔又大波,又大囉。

That girl has big boobs and big ass.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentence Compound sentences
Components Sentence 1 Sentence 2
True value True True
Words in sentence 嗰個女仔又大波 又大囉

 

Sentence 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Noun
Words in sentence 嗰個女仔 大波

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 嗰個
Head 女仔

 

Sentence 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial conjunction Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Noun
Words in sentence (嗰個女仔) 大囉

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 418-419。

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