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U6L4 Complex sentence(偏正句)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, complex sentences(偏正句)will be introduced.  Complex sentences are composite sentences(複句)that one of its component sentence does not possess any true value(真假值)(i.e. unknown).  The usage of complex sentences can be divided into the followings:

Usages of complex sentences

Usage 1

Clauses of Condition(條件句)

To use the sentence with unknown true value to indicate a condition for the sentence with true value to happen.
Usage 2

Clauses of Concession(容認句)

To use the sentence with unknown true value to indicate a fact that suggests the opposite for the sentence with true value.
Usage 3

Clauses of Time(時間句)

To use the sentence with unknown true value to indicate the time for the sentence with true value to happen.

Related words: 親[can1]吓[haa5]

Usage 4

Clauses of Purpose(目的句)

To use the sentence with unknown true value to indicate the purpose for carrying out the sentence with true value.

 

In this lesson, usage 1 with be explained with correlative conjunctions(相關連詞)for making hypothesis.

 

Creating a clause of condition with correlative conjunctions

In last lesson, you have learnt using correlative conjunctions(相關連詞)that are created by repeating the conjunction.  In this lesson, correlative conjunctions that are created from combining a conjunction(連詞)with an adverb(副詞)will be introduced.  These correlative conjunctions are used to make hypothesis.  The true value of the hypothesis is unknown.

Correlative conjunctions for making hypothesis

如果/假如…就如果/假如…都…嘅話/的話,就…

 

jyu4 gwo2 nei5 ting1 jat6 hang2 pui4 ngo5 maai5 sung3,ngo5 zau6 wui5 zyu2 hou2 je5

如果你聽日肯陪我買餸,我就會煮好嘢。

If you will do grocery with me tomorrow, I will then make some good food.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence如果你聽日肯陪我買餸我就會煮好嘢

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceConjunctionSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechConjunctionNounNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence如果聽日陪我買餸

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence煮好嘢

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/好嘢

 

nei5 soeng2 wan2 hou2 do1 cin2 ge3 waa2,nei5 zau6 jiu3 bei2 sam1 gei1 zou6 je5

你想搵好多錢嘅話,你就要畀心機做嘢。

If you want to earn a lot of money, you have to work hard.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence你想搵好多錢嘅話你就要畀心機做嘢

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObjectConjunction
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClauseConjunction
Words in sentence搵好多錢嘅話

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/好多錢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier好多
Head

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence畀心機做嘢

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/VerbNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/心機

 

dei6 kau4 cyun4 bou6 jan4 dou1 hang2 jung6 hang4 dung6 bou2 wu6 waan4 ging2 ge3 waa2,dei6 kau4 nyun5 faa3 zau6 m4 wui5 ceot1 jin6

地球全部人都肯用行動保護環境嘅話,地球暖化就唔會出現。

If everyone on Earth was willing to use their action to protect the environment, there will be no global warming.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence地球全部人都肯用行動保護環境嘅話地球暖化就唔會出現

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObjectConjunction
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClauseConjunction
Words in sentence地球全部人用行動保護環境嘅話

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier地球全部
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/行動保護環境

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence地球暖化就; 唔出現

 

jyu4 gwo2 aa3 maa1 zan1 hai6 tung4 aa3 baa4 lei4 fan1,ngo5 zau6 wui5 tung4 aa3 maa1 jat1 cai4 zyu6

如果阿媽真係同阿爸離婚,我就會同阿媽一齊住。

If mum really divorces dad, I will then live with mum.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence如果阿媽真係同阿爸離婚我就會同阿媽一齊住

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceConjunctionSubjectAdverbialPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechConjunctionNounAdverbPrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence如果阿媽真係阿爸

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence同阿媽一齊住

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounAdverbVerb
Words in sentence/阿媽一齊

 

gaa2 jyu4 nei5 hang2 nou5 lik6,nei5 dou1 ho2 ji5 sing4 gung1

假如你肯努力,你都可以成功。

If you are willing to work hard, you can be successful too.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence假如你肯努力你都可以成功

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceConjunctionSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechConjunctionNounAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence假如努力

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbAdjective
Words in sentence可以成功

 

Creating a clause of condition without correlative conjunctions

You can also omit those conjunctions completely for creating a clause of condition, as long as the true value of sentences matches the true value of the complex sentences(偏正句), which the first sentence has to possess an unknown true value.

nei5 m4 heoi3 leoi5 hang4,ngo5 dou1 m4 wui5 heoi3

你唔去旅行,我都唔會去。

If you will not travel, I won’t travel as well.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence你唔去旅行我都唔會去

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence旅行

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbVerb
Words in sentence都; 唔

 

nei5 ting1 jat6 hang2 pui4 ngo5 maai5 sung3,ngo5 zau6 wui5 zyu2 hou2 je5

你聽日肯陪我買餸,我就會煮好嘢。

If you will do grocery with me tomorrow, I will then make some good food.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence你聽日肯陪我買餸我就會煮好嘢

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence聽日陪我買餸

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/VerbNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence煮好嘢

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/好嘢

 

nei5 soeng2 wan2 hou2 do1 cin2,nei5 zau6 jiu3 bei2 sam1 gei1 zou6 je5

你想搵好多錢,你就要畀心機做嘢。

If you want to earn a lot of money, you have to work hard.

Composite sentences

Type of composite sentenceComplex sentences
ComponentsSentence 1Sentence 2
True valueUnknownTrue
Words in sentence你想搵好多錢你就要畀心機做嘢

 

Sentence 1 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence搵好多錢

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/好多錢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier好多
Head

 

Sentence 2 of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence畀心機做嘢

 

Object of the sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/VerbNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/心機

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 272-288。

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