U1L6 Auxiliary verb(助動詞)

Introduction

In last lesson, we have learnt how to use a noun as an object of a sentence. In this lesson, we are going to learn how to use auxiliary verb(助動詞).  For the difference between auxiliary verb and ordinary verbs, auxiliary verbs can only take a clause(分句)as its object, and the predicate of that clause has to be an adjective(形容詞)or a verb(動詞).  Meanwhile, you can use noun object, verb object or adjective object or even sentence object with ordinary verbs.

The tricky part is that words often have several different and overlapping part of speech; some auxiliary verbs can be used as ordinary verbs as well.  Memorization is the only way for you to master them.  Nevertheless, by knowing what are auxiliary verbs, you can analysis sentences better.

 

A list of auxiliary verbs

Auxiliary verbs Can it be used as an ordinary verb? Meanings as an auxiliary verb
有[jau5]/ 冇[mou5] Yes Have/ don’t have
要[jiu3]/ 應該[jing1 goi1] No Should
使[sai2] Yes Need
憎[zang1] Yes Hate
中意[zung1 ji3] Yes Like
願意[jyun6 ji3] No Willing to…
情願[cing4 jyun6] No Would rather
肯[hang2] No Willing to…
可以[ho2 ji5] No Can/ Allow
准[zeon2] No Allow
怕[paa3] Yes Afraid of
值得[zik6 dak1] No Worth doing
想[soeng2] No Want to…
諗住[lam2 zyu6] No Is thinking of…
識[sik1] Yes Know…

 

Using verb as the object of auxiliary verb

Noted that the following examples are made with intransitive verbs.

Ngo5 jing1 goi1 heoi3

我應該去。

I should go.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Verb
Words in sentence 應該

 

Nei5 jiu3 zau2

你要走。

You should go.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Verb
Words in sentence

 

Nei5 jing1 goi1 wan1 syu1

你應該溫書。

You should study.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 應該 溫書

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

Ngo5 zung1 ji3 sik6 gai1 daan6 zai2

我中意食雞蛋仔。

I like eating egg waffles.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 中意 食雞蛋仔

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 雞蛋仔

 

Ngo5 soeng2 sik6 daan6 gou1

我想食蛋糕。

I want to eat cake.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 食蛋糕

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 蛋糕

 

Ngo5 paa3 tai2 hung2 bou3 pin2

我怕睇恐怖片。

I am afraid of horror films.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 睇恐怖片

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 恐怖片

 

Ngo5 hou2 zang1 jam2 zau2

我好憎飲酒。

I really hate drinking alcohol.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 飲酒

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

ngo5 cing4 jyun6 sik6 min6 baau1

我情願食麵包。

I would rather eat bread.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 情願 食麵包

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 麵包

 

keoi5 dei6 sik1 caai2 daan1 ce1

佢哋識踩單車。

They know how to ride a bike.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 佢哋 踩單車

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 單車

 

ngo5 nang4 gau3 bong1 nei5

我能夠幫你。

I can help you.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 能夠 幫你

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

keoi5 paa3 hak1

佢怕黑。

He/She/It is afraid of dark.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Adjective
Words in sentence

 

ngo5 hou2 paa3 dung3

我好怕凍。

I am afraid of coldness.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Adjective
Words in sentence

Negating sentences with auxiliary verbs

As you have learnt in previous lessons, when there is no adverb or predicative suffix in the sentence, you can simply negate it with adverb(副詞)唔[m4].

ngo5 m4 jing3 goi1 heoi3 。

我唔應該去。

I should not go.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Verb
Words in sentence 應該

 

keoi5 m4 hang2 zou6 gung1 fo3 。

佢唔肯做功課。

He/She is not willing to do homework.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 做功課

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 功課

 

hok6 saang1 m4 zeon2 sik6 jin1 。

學生唔准食煙。

Students are not allowed to smoke.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 學生 食煙

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

keoi5 m4 hang2 duk6 syu1

佢唔肯讀書。

He/She is not willing to study.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 讀書

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

ngo5 dei6 m4 sai2 dang2 keoi5 。

我哋唔使等佢。

We don’t need to wait for him/her.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我哋 使 等佢

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

ngo5 m4 sik1 gong2 jing1 man2

我唔識講英文。

I don’t know how to speak English.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverb Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 講英文

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 英文

 

Meanwhile, if there are other adverb or predicative suffix in the sentence, you have to use auxiliary verb(助動詞)係[hai6] alongside [m4] to negate whole sentence.

nei5 m4 hai6 hou2 jing3 goi1 heoi3

你唔係好應該去。

You really should not go.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 好應該去

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech / Adverb Auxiliary verb Verb
Words in sentence / 應該

 

ngo5 m4 hai6 hou2 paa3 hak1

我唔係好怕黑。

I am not really afraid of darkness.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 好怕黑

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech / Adverb Auxiliary verb Adjective
Words in sentence /

 

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