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U2L10 Specifying determinatives(特指性定詞)

Introduction

Specifying determinatives(特指性定詞)are determinatives for specifying a noun(名詞).  Similar with other determinatives, you have to attach them to other words in order to use them in a sentence.  These determinatives are usually added to counters(量詞)by following the structure of subordination(偏正式).

Specifying DeterminativeMeaning
每 [mui5]Every
各 [gok3]Each (Formal)
本 [bun2]This (Formal)
某 [mau5]A random person or thing

 

Structure
Modifiers+Head
Specifying DeterminativeNoun

 

Mui5 go3 jan4 dou1 jing1 goi1 hok6 jing1 man2

每個人都應該學英文。

Everyone should learn English.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence每個人應該學英文

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/英文

 

Hai2 duk6 zung1 hok6 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 mui5 jat6 dou1 wui5 daa2 gei1

喺讀中學嘅時候,我每日都會打機。

When I was in high school, I used to play video game everyday.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence喺讀中學嘅時候每日我都會打機

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier喺讀中學
Head時候

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNoun; adverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence每日; 都打機

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Gok3 go3 gwok3 gaa1 dou1 jau5 zi6 gei2 ge3 man4 faa3

各個國家都有自己嘅文化。

Each country has its own culture.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence各個國家自己嘅文化

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier各個
Head國家

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination 1
Modifier自己
Head文化

 

Bun2 hok6 nin4 ngo5 dei6 hok6 haau6 jau5 jat1 cin1 go3 hok6 saang1

本學年我哋學校有一千個學生。

This academic year, our college has one thousand students.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence本學年我哋學校有一千個學生

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head學年

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence我哋學校一千個嘅學生

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋
Head學校

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一千個
Head學生

 

Ni1 go3 hai6 mau5 fan6 zaap6 zi3 ge3 bou3 dou6

呢個係某份雜誌嘅報導。

This is certain magazine’s report.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence呢個某份雜誌嘅報導

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier某份雜誌
Head報導

 

Ni1 zoeng1 soeng2 hai6 mau5 go3 sip3 jing2 si1 jing2 ge3

呢張相係某個攝影師影嘅。

This photo is taken by certain photographer.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence呢張相某個攝影師影嘅

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢張
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier某個攝影師影
Head(相)

Relative time words(相對時間詞)

You can use specifying determinatives to modify time words that you have learnt previous and create relative time words, which are time words that do not refer to a specific time point.  Beware that 星期[sing1 kei4] and 月[jyut6] need to be attached with counter(量詞)個[go3] in order to be attached by specifying determinatives.

Structure
Modifiers+Head
Specifying DeterminativeTime word

 

Time related specifying determinativesPossible word combinations
前 [cin4]前年[cin4 nin2]

前日[cin4 jat6]

前晚[cin4 maan5]

後 [hau6]後年[hau6 nin2]

後日[hau6 jat6]

後晚[hau6 maan5/ hau6 maan1]

上 [soeng6]世紀[soeng6 sai3 gei2]

上年[soeng6 nin2]

上個星期[soeng6 go3 sing1 kei4]

上個月[soeng6 go3 jyut6]

上次[soeng6 ci3]

下 [haa6]世紀[haa6 sai3 gei2]

下年[haa6 nin2]

下個星期[haa6 go3 sing1 kei4]

下個月[haa6 go3 jyut6]

下次[haa6 ci3]

今 [gam1]今年[gam1 nin2/ gam1 nin4]

今日[gam1 jat6]

今晚[gam1 maan5]

今朝[gam1 ziu1]

今個星期[gam1 go3 sing1 kei4]

今個月[gam1 go3 jyut6]

今次[gam1 ci3]

舊 [gau6]舊年[gau6 nin2]

舊日[gau6 jat6]

 

Other relative time words

There are other relative time words that are not created by combining with determinatives.

Other relative time words
以前,以後,依家,將來,啱啱,過去,從前,起先,收尾

 

keoi5 soeng6 go3 sing1 kei4 ji5 ging1 mou5 soeng5 tong4

佢上個星期已經冇上堂。

He/She has skipped the class since last week.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNoun; adverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence上個星期; 已經上堂

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

keoi5 ting1 jat6 wui5 taam3 ngo5 dei6

佢聽日會探我哋。

He/She will visit us tomorrow.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence聽日會探我

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence聽日探我

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Hau6 jat6 hai6 ngo5 ge3 saang1 jat6

後日係我嘅生日。

The day after tomorrow is my birthday.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence後日我嘅生日

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head生日

 

ting1 jat6 hai6 jyu4 jan4 zit3

聽日愚人節。

Tomorrow is April Fool’s day.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence聽日愚人節

 

ngo5 ting1 jat6 wui5 zou6 gung1 fo3

我聽日會做功課。

I am going to do the homework tomorrow.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence聽日做功課

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/功課

 

Cin4 jat6 maa4 maa1 maai5 zo2 ni1 joeng6 je5

前日媽媽買咗呢樣嘢。

Mum bought this the day before yesterday.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence前日媽媽買咗呢樣嘢

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredictive SuffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredictive SuffixNoun
Words in sentence媽媽呢樣嘢

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢樣
Head

Cam4 jat6 ngo5 dei6 baan1 ge3 lou5 si1 mou5 sau1 gung1 fo3

尋日我哋班嘅老師冇收功課

Yesterday, our class teacher didn’t collect the assignment.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence尋日我哋班嘅老師冇收功課

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋班嘅老師收功課

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋班
Head老師

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/功課

 

Ting1 jat6 ngo5 jiu3 faan1 gung1

聽日我要返工。

I have to work tomorrow.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence聽日我要返工

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence返工

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

keoi5 ting1 jat6 ho2 ji5 fong3 gaa3

佢聽日可以放假。

He/She can be on vacation tomorrow.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence聽日可以放假

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

Ngo5 nam2 cin4 jat6 keoi5 mou5 faan1 gung1

我諗前日佢冇返工。

I think he/she didn’t work the day before yesterday.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbSentence
Words in sentence前日佢冇返工

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence前日佢冇返工

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence返工

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 332

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