U2L11 Position word(位置詞)

In this lesson, we are going to learn how to describe a specific location by using the following position word according to structure of subordination(偏正式).

Position word Meanings
頂 [deng2] on top of
底 [dai2] in the bottom of
邊 [bin1] at the sides
面 [min6] on the surface of
度 [dou6] indicating the proximity of that place
處 [syu3] indicating the proximity of that place

 

By combing a noun with these words, you can create a compound noun that would indicate certain areas in the vicinity of a specific place (which is the noun that you use for making such compound noun).  Similar with other nouns, it can be the subject or the object of a sentence.

Structure
Modifiers + Head
Position word Nouns

 

Out of all these positional words, 度 is the word with the highest using frequency due to its vagueness; it can be applied to everything and common sense is required to understand it.  The meaning and using of 度 and 處 is identical.  However, 處 is much more old-school than 度.

Both 頂 and 面 is referring to the top of a certain thing.  頂 is usually used when referring to a place where its top is pointy, for example 塔頂(the top of a tower).  On the other hand, 面 is usually used when referring to a place where its top is flat and smooth, for example 錶面(the top surface of a watch).

Uk1 deng2 jau5 zek3 zoek3 zai2

屋頂有隻雀仔。

There is a little bird on the rooftop.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 屋頂 隻雀仔

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 雀仔

 

Ce1 dai2 jau5 zek3 gau2 zai2

車底有隻狗仔。

There is a puppy under the car.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 車底 隻狗仔

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 狗仔

 

Hai2 dang1 taap3 deng2 ge3 fung1 ging2 hou2 leng3

喺燈塔頂嘅風景好靚。

There is beautiful view at the top of the lighthouse.

Type of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 喺燈塔頂嘅風景

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 喺燈塔頂
Head 風景

 

Nei5 fan6 jan4 gung1 hai2 wong4 siu2 ze2 dou6

你份人工喺黃小姐度。

Your salary can be taken from Mrs. Wong. (Literal meaning: Your salary is at Mrs. Wong’s place)

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 你份人工 黃小姐度

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 你份
Head 人工

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 黃小姐
Head

 

Lou6 bin1 jau5 deoi1 lau4 long6 maau1

路邊有堆流浪貓。

There is a group of feral cats beside the road.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 路邊 堆流浪貓

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 流浪貓

 

toi2 min2 jau5 jat1 fan6 lai5 mat6

枱面有一份禮物。

There is a gift on the table.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 枱面 一份禮物

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一份
Head 禮物

Using determinatives with these position word

As you have learnt previously, demonstrative determinatives(指示性定詞)呢[ni1] and 嗰[go2] have to be used with a counter(量詞).  However, you can also replace the counter with position word 邊[bin1], 面[min6], 度[dou6] and 處[syu3]. 

ni1 dou6 hai6 naam4 ci3

呢度係男廁。

Here is male’s toilet.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 呢度 男廁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Go2 bin1 hai6 hoeng1 gong2 dou2

嗰邊係香港島。

That is Hong Kong Island over there.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 嗰邊 香港島

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

 

Ngo5 gu2 keoi5 cin4 jat6 heoi3 zo2 go2 dou6

我估佢前日去咗嗰度。

I guess that he/she went there the day before yesterday.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Sentence
Words in sentence 佢前日去咗嗰度

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Predictive suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Noun Verb Predictive suffix Noun
Words in sentence 前日 嗰度

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 323-325。

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