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U2L15 To describe transient words(過渡詞)

Introduction

As we have learnt in previous lessons, determinatives(定詞)are used to modify a noun.  Nevertheless, they can be modified too, according to the structure of subordination(偏正式).  Words that are described by determinatives is called transient words(過渡詞) and they can be further modified.  In this lesson, we are going to learn using nouns, verbs, adjectives and full sentences to modify nouns that have been already described by demonstrative determinatives(指示性定詞), 呢[ni1] and 嗰[go2].

 

Using nouns to describe transient words

Structure
Modifiers+Head
NounsNoun being described by demonstrative determinatives

 

Ngo5 teng1 gwo3 baak6 syut3 gung1 zyu2 ni1 go3 gu3 si6

我聽過「白雪公主」呢個故事。

I have heard of the story of Snow White.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence白雪公主呢個故事

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier白雪公主呢個
Head故事

 

Hai2 hoi2 joeng4 gung1 jyun2 go2 dou6 jau5 hung4 maau1

喺海洋公園嗰度有熊貓。

There are pandas in the Ocean park.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence喺海洋公園嗰度熊貓

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier喺海洋公園嗰
Head

 

Ngo5 dei6 m4 sik1 ni1 go3 ming4 sing1

我哋唔識呢個明星。

We don’t know this superstar.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence我哋呢個明星

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢個
Head明星

 

Using adjectives to describe transient words

Structure
Modifiers+Head
AdjectivesNoun being described by demonstrative determinatives

 

Ngo5 m4 zung1 ji3 sik6 hou2 syun1 go2 zung2 tong4

我唔中意食好酸嗰種糖。

I don’t like eating sour candies.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence中意 食好酸嗰種糖

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/好酸嗰種糖

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier好酸嗰種
Head

 

Keoi5 tau1 zo2 hou2 gwai3 go2 zek3 sau2 biu1

佢偷咗好貴嗰隻手錶。

He/She stole that expensive watch.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence好貴嗰隻手

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier好貴嗰
Head

 

Using verbs to describe transient words

Structure
Modifiers+Head
VerbsNoun being described by demonstrative determinatives

 

Ngo5 tai2 gan2 go2 bun2 syu1 m4 gin3 zo2

我睇𡁵嗰本書唔見咗。

The book I was reading disappeared.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffix
Part of speechNounAdjectivePredicative suffix
Words in sentence我睇𡁵嗰本書唔見

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我睇𡁵嗰本
Head

 

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 soeng2 maai5 go2 di1 wun6 geoi6

我買想買嗰啲玩具。

I bought those toys i wanted.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence想買嗰啲玩具

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier 想買嗰啲
Head玩具

 

Using complete sentences to describe transient words

Structure
Modifiers+Head
Full sentencesNoun being described by demonstrative determinatives

 

Sai3 lou2 coeng2 zo2 ngo5 waan2 gan2 go2 bou6 jau4 hei3 gei1

細佬搶咗我玩𡁵嗰部遊戲機。

My brother has snatched the handheld console that I am playing.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixSentence
Words in sentence細佬我玩𡁵嗰部遊戲機

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我玩𡁵嗰部
Head遊戲機

 

Keoi5 jung6 zo2 ngo5 jung6 gwo3 go2 zek3 dip2

佢用咗我用過嗰隻碟。

He/she used the dish that I have used.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixSentence
Words in sentence我用過嗰隻碟

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我用過嗰隻
Head

 

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 nei5 zung1 ji3 sik6 go2 zung2 daan6 gou1

我買咗你中意食嗰種蛋糕。

I bought the cake that you like to eat.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixSentence
Words in sentence你中意食嗰種蛋糕

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier你中意食嗰種
Head蛋糕

 

Keoi5 m4 zung1 ji3 sik6 ngo5 dei2 zyu2 go2 di1 sung3

佢唔中意食我哋煮嗰啲餸。

He/She does not like eating the dishes we cooked.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbPredicateClause
Words in sentence中意食我哋煮嗰啲餸

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/我哋煮嗰啲餸

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋煮嗰啲
Head

 

Ngo5 dei6 sik6 gan2 faan6 go2 dou6 hai2 ji6 lau2

我哋食𡁵飯嗰度喺二樓。

The place where we are having meal is at second floor.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence我哋食𡁵飯嗰度二樓

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋食𡁵飯嗰
Head

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head

Using sentence to describe relative time words

In previous lesson, you have come across relative time words(相對時間詞).  In addition to specifying determinatives, demonstrative determinatives can be used to create relative time words too.

Demonstrative determinativesRelative time words
呢[ni1]呢日[ni1 jat6]

呢個月[ni1 go3 jyut6]

呢年[ni1 nin2/ ni1 nin4]

嗰[go2]嗰日[go2 jat6]

嗰個月[go2 go3 jyut6]

嗰年[go2 nin2/ go2 nin4]

嗰陣[go2 zan6]

 

Since these time words are created with demonstrative determinatives, they are transient words and they can be modified as well.

Structure
Modifiers+Head
Full sentencesRelative time words created by demonstrative determinatives

 

Ngo5 zou6 gan2 je5 go2 zan6 m4 wui5 teng1 din6 waa2

我做𡁵嘢嗰陣唔會聽電話。

I do not answer phone call when I am working.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounNoun; AdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence𡁵嘢嗰陣; 唔聽電話

 

Adverbial of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier𡁵嘢嗰
Head

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/電話

 

Ngo5 dei6 hok6 haau6 fong3 gaa3 go2 zan6,ngo5 heoi3 zo2 jat6 bun2

我哋學校放假嗰陣,我去咗日本。

When our school was on vacation, I went to Japan.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence我哋學校放假嗰陣我去咗日本

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋學校放假嗰
Head

 

Predicate of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixCognate object
Part of speechNounVerbPredicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence日本

 

That’s it for this Cantonese grammar lesson!  If you appreciate our work, sign up now and give us a LikeCoin by clicking the LikeCoin button below 5 times.  It will empower us to create more useful contents for you in the future!

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