U2L5 Describing the status and the features of a noun 嘅[ge3]

Introduction

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the usage of using 嘅[ge3] to describe the status and the feature of a noun will be introduced.  In previous lessons, we have learnt that we can use numbers(數詞)and noun(名詞)to describe a noun with 嘅[ge3] by following the structure of subordination(偏正式).  In this lesson, we are going to learn how to describe the status and the features of a noun with an adjective, a clause or a complete sentence.

Describing a noun with an adjective

​You can use adjective(形容詞)as a modifier to describe a noun.  You have to use 嘅[ge3] to connect the adjective and the noun together unless that adjective only has one character.  If so, 嘅[ge3] may be omitted, or it can be kept as well for emphasizing that adjective.

Ngo5 m4 zung1 ji3 laan5 ge3 neoi5 jan4

我唔中意懶女人。(嘅 is kept here for emphasizing)

I don’t like woman who is lazy.

 

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 中意 女人

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 女人

 

Lou5 si1 sing4 jat6 naau6 m4 kan4 lik6 ge3 hok6 saang1

老師成日唔勤力嘅學生。

The teacher always scolds students who are not hardworking.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 老師 成日 唔勤力嘅學生

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 唔勤力
Head 學生

 

ngo5 zung1 ji3 dak1 ji3 ge3 gau2

我中意得意狗。

I like a cute dog.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 中意 得意

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 得意
Head

 

Ngo5 soeng2 joeng5 zek3 cung1 ming4 ge3 maau1

我想養隻聰明嘅貓。

I want to keep a smart cat.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 養隻聰明嘅貓

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 隻聰明嘅貓

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 隻聰明
Head

 

Describing a noun with a clause

​To describe a noun with a clause, you have to use 嘅[ge3] to connect the clause with the noun.

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 soeng2 maai5 ge3 wun6 geoi6

我買想買嘅玩具。

I bought the toy I wanted.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 想買嘅玩具

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 想買
Head 玩具

 

aa3 maa1 hai6 oi3 ngo5 ge3 jan4

阿媽係愛我嘅人。

My mum is someone who loves me.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 阿媽 愛我嘅人

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 愛我
Head

 

Long6 fai3 si4 gaan3 ge3 jan4 hou2 ho2 lin4

浪費時間嘅人好可憐。

People who waste their time are pathetic.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 浪費時間嘅人 可憐

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 浪費時間
Head

 

hok6 saang1 hai6 duk6 gan2 syu1 ge3 siu2 pang4 jau5

學生係讀𡁵書嘅小朋友。

Students are the children who are studying.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 學生 𡁵書嘅小朋友

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 𡁵
Head 小朋友

 

Ngo5 dei6 hok6 haau6 ceng2 zo2 jat1 wai2 san1 ge3 gaau3 jing1 man6 ge3 lou5 si1

我哋學校請咗一位新嘅教英文嘅老師。

Our school has recruited a new teacher who is teaching English.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 我哋學校 新嘅教英文嘅老師

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 我哋
Head 學校

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 新嘅教英文
Head 老師

Describing a noun with a complete sentence

Similar with describing a noun with a clause, you have to use 嘅[ge3] to connect the complete sentence with the noun.

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 ngo5 gu2 nei5 wui6 zung1 ji3 sik6 ge3 tong2

我買咗我估你會中意食嘅糖。

I brought the sweets which I guess you would like them.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 我估你會中意食嘅糖

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 我估你會中意食
Head

 

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 nei5 soeng2 maai5 ge3 wun6 geoi6

我買咗你想買嘅玩具。

I brought the toy you wanted.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 想買嘅玩具

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 想買
Head 玩具

 

Aa3 maa1 zyu2 zo2 nei5 mei6 sik6 gwo3 ge3 sung3

媽煮咗你未食過嘅餸。

My mum cooked some dishes which you haven’t tried before.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 阿媽 你未食過嘅餸

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 你未食過
Head

 

Ngo5 zou6 zo2 cam4 jat6 ngo5 mei6 zou6 ge3 gung1 fo3

我做咗尋日我未做嘅功課。

I did the homework that you force me to do.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 尋日我未做嘅功課

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 尋日我未做
Head 功課

 

keoi5 sek3 zo2 ngo5 zung1 ji3 ge3 neoi5 zai2

佢惜咗我中意嘅女仔。

He kissed the girl I like.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Predicative suffix Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Predicative suffix Noun
Words in sentence 我中意嘅女仔

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 我中意
Head 女仔

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 97-99

That’s it for this Cantonese grammar lesson!  If you appreciate our work, sign up now and give us a LikeCoin by clicking the LikeCoin button below 5 times.  It will empower us to create more useful contents for you in the future!

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

English