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U2L5 Describing the status and the features of a noun 嘅[ge3]

Introduction

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, the usage of using 嘅[ge3] to describe the status and the feature of a noun will be introduced.  In previous lessons, we have learnt that we can use numbers(數詞)and noun(名詞)to describe a noun with 嘅[ge3] by following the structure of subordination(偏正式).  In this lesson, we are going to learn how to describe the status and the features of a noun with an adjective, a clause or a complete sentence.

Describing a noun with an adjective

​You can use adjective(形容詞)as a modifier to describe a noun.  You have to use 嘅[ge3] to connect the adjective and the noun together unless that adjective only has one character.  If so, 嘅[ge3] may be omitted, or it can be kept as well for emphasizing that adjective.

Ngo5 m4 zung1 ji3 laan5 ge3 neoi5 jan4

我唔中意懶女人。(嘅 is kept here for emphasizing)

I don’t like woman who is lazy.

 

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence中意女人

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head女人

 

Lou5 si1 sing4 jat6 naau6 m4 kan4 lik6 ge3 hok6 saang1

老師成日唔勤力嘅學生。

The teacher always scolds students who are not hardworking.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence老師成日唔勤力嘅學生

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier唔勤力
Head學生

 

ngo5 zung1 ji3 dak1 ji3 ge3 gau2

我中意得意狗。

I like a cute dog.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence中意得意

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier得意
Head

 

Ngo5 soeng2 joeng5 zek3 cung1 ming4 ge3 maau1

我想養隻聰明嘅貓。

I want to keep a smart cat.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence養隻聰明嘅貓

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/隻聰明嘅貓

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier隻聰明
Head

 

Describing a noun with a clause

​To describe a noun with a clause, you have to use 嘅[ge3] to connect the clause with the noun.

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 soeng2 maai5 ge3 wun6 geoi6

我買想買嘅玩具。

I bought the toy I wanted.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence想買嘅玩具

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier想買
Head玩具

 

aa3 maa1 hai6 oi3 ngo5 ge3 jan4

阿媽係愛我嘅人。

My mum is someone who loves me.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence阿媽愛我嘅人

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier愛我
Head

 

Long6 fai3 si4 gaan3 ge3 jan4 hou2 ho2 lin4

浪費時間嘅人好可憐。

People who waste their time are pathetic.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAdjective
Words in sentence浪費時間嘅人可憐

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier浪費時間
Head

 

hok6 saang1 hai6 duk6 gan2 syu1 ge3 siu2 pang4 jau5

學生係讀𡁵書嘅小朋友。

Students are the children who are studying.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence學生𡁵書嘅小朋友

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier𡁵
Head小朋友

 

Ngo5 dei6 hok6 haau6 ceng2 zo2 jat1 wai2 san1 ge3 gaau3 jing1 man6 ge3 lou5 si1

我哋學校請咗一位新嘅教英文嘅老師。

Our school has recruited a new teacher who is teaching English.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate Predicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence我哋學校新嘅教英文嘅老師

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我哋
Head學校

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier新嘅教英文
Head老師

Describing a noun with a complete sentence

Similar with describing a noun with a clause, you have to use 嘅[ge3] to connect the complete sentence with the noun.

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 ngo5 gu2 nei5 wui6 zung1 ji3 sik6 ge3 tong2

我買咗我估你會中意食嘅糖。

I brought the sweets which I guess you would like them.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence我估你會中意食嘅糖

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我估你會中意食
Head

 

Ngo5 maai5 zo2 nei5 soeng2 maai5 ge3 wun6 geoi6

我買咗你想買嘅玩具。

I brought the toy you wanted.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence想買嘅玩具

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier想買
Head玩具

 

Aa3 maa1 zyu2 zo2 nei5 mei6 sik6 gwo3 ge3 sung3

媽煮咗你未食過嘅餸。

My mum cooked some dishes which you haven’t tried before.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence阿媽你未食過嘅餸

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier你未食過
Head

 

Ngo5 zou6 zo2 cam4 jat6 ngo5 mei6 zou6 ge3 gung1 fo3

我做咗尋日我未做嘅功課。

I did the homework that you force me to do.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence尋日我未做嘅功課

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier尋日我未做
Head功課

 

keoi5 sek3 zo2 ngo5 zung1 ji3 ge3 neoi5 zai2

佢惜咗我中意嘅女仔。

He kissed the girl I like.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicatePredicative suffixObject
Part of speechNounVerb Predicative suffixNoun
Words in sentence我中意嘅女仔

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier我中意
Head女仔

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 97-99

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