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U2L7 Describing time and location(時候/地方)

Introduction

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, two useful nouns, 時候[si4 hau6] and 地方[dei6 fong1], will be introduced.  Both 時候[si4 hau6] means “time” and 地方[dei6 fong1] means “place”.  As the subject can be used to represent the time or the place for for the predicate to happen, these two words are usually used as the subject(主語)of a sentence in subject-predicative(主謂式)for representing the time or the place for the predicate to happen.

Moreover, as you have learn in Unit 2 Lesson 5, you can use a noun, an adjective, a verb, a clause or a complete sentence as modifier to describe these two nouns according to structure of subordination(偏正式).

dung1 tin1 ge3 si4 hau6,tin1 hei3 hou2 gon1 cou3

冬天嘅時候,天氣好乾燥。

When it is winter, the weather is dry.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence冬天嘅時候天氣好乾燥

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier冬天
Head時候

 

Predicate of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverbAdjective
Words in sentence天氣乾燥

 

Describing time and location with a verb(時候/地方)

soeng5 gan2 tong4 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 dei6 m4 jing1 goi1 king1 gai2

上𡁵堂嘅時候,我哋唔應該傾偈。

We should not talk during class.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence上𡁵堂嘅時候我哋唔應該傾偈

 

Predicate of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋應該傾偈

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier上𡁵堂
Head時候

 

faan1 gan2 gung1 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 dei6 m4 ho2 ji5 waan2 din6 waa2

返𡁵工嘅時候,我哋唔可以玩電話。

We cannot use our smartphone during work.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence返𡁵工嘅時候我哋唔可以玩電話

 

Predicate of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋可以玩電話

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/電話

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier返𡁵工
Head時候

 

hai2 zou6 wan6 dung6 ge3 dei6 fong1,ngo5 dei6 m4 jing1 goi1 sik6 jin1

喺做運動嘅地方,我哋唔應該食煙。

We should not smoke in places where people exercise.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence喺做運動嘅地方我哋唔應該食煙

 

Predicate of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我哋應該食煙

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier喺做運動
Head地方

 

 

Describing time and location with an adjective(時候/地方)

tin1 hei3 hou2 dung3 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 m4 soeng2 hei2 san1

天氣好凍嘅時候,我唔想起身。

When the weather is cold, I don’t want to wake up.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence天氣好凍嘅時候我唔想起身

 

Predicate of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence起身

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier天氣好凍
Head時候

 

tin1 hei3 hou2 jit6 ge3 si4 hau6,ngo5 m4 soeng2 ceot1 gaai1

天氣好熱嘅時候,我唔想出街。

When the weather is hot, I don’t want to go out.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence天氣好熱嘅時候我唔想出街

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier天氣好熱
Head時候

 

Predicate of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence出街

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

That’s it for this Cantonese grammar lesson!  If you appreciate our work, sign up now and give us a LikeCoin by clicking the LikeCoin button below 5 times.  It will empower us to create more useful contents for you in the future!

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