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U5L3 Pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs(代副詞、代形容詞、代動詞)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs will be introduced.  Pronoun are used to substitute a noun or a noun phrase.  For pro-adverb(代副詞), pro-adjective(代形容詞)and pro-verb(代動詞), they are used to substitute adverb(副詞), adjective(形容詞)and verb(動詞)respectively.  The meaning of these words are depending on the context and they can be roughly translated as “like that”.

 

Pro-adverb(代副詞)

Pro-adverbs include the following words.

Pro-adverbs

噉[gam2]/ 噉樣[gam2 joeng2]咁[gam3]點[dim2」/ 點樣[dim2 joeng2] (Only use in a question)

 

噉 is used to indicate the manner of doing something and it can be translated as “like that”; 噉 can be replaced by 噉樣 in all setting; their meaning and usage is identical.

咁 is always used before adjective to indicate the extent of that adjective.  Example of using 咁 will be introduced in Unit 5 Lesson 4.

點 is an interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞); 點 can be replaced by 點樣 in all setting; their meaning and usage is identical.

Nei5 jiu3 gam2 zou6

你要噉做。

You need to do it like this.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence噉做

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speech/Pro-adverbVerb
Words in sentence/

 

Ngo5 zung1 ji3 gam2 waak6 waa2

我中意噉畫畫。

I like to draw it like this.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence中意噉畫畫

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speech/Pro-adverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence/

 

Ngo5 soeng2 nei5 gam2 joeng2 se2 ni1 pin1 man2

我想你噉樣寫呢篇文。

I want you to write this article like this.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbSentence
Words in sentence你噉樣寫呢篇文

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounPro-adverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence噉樣呢篇文

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier呢篇
Head

Pro-adjectives(代形容詞)

Pro-adjectives include the following words.

Pro-adjectives

噉[gam2]

點[dim2」/ 點樣[dim2 joeng2](Only use in a question)

 

Pro-adjectives can be used as the modifier according to the structure of subordination(偏正式) as well.

Structure
Modifiers+Head
Pro-adjectiveNoun

 

Ngo5 m4 zung1 ji3 gam2 ge3 neoi5 zai2

我唔中意噉嘅女仔。

I don’t like girl like that.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence中意噉嘅女仔

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head女仔

 

Ngo5 soeng2 maai5 bou6 gam2 ge3 ce1

我想買部噉嘅車。

I want to buy a car like that.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence買部噉嘅車

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speech/VerbNoun
Words in sentence/部噉嘅車

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier部噉
Head

 

Ngo5 hou2 zang1 di1 gam2 ge3 gung1 si1

我好憎啲噉嘅公司。

I hate such company.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence啲噉嘅公司

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier啲噉
Head公司

 

Pro-verbs(代動詞)

Pro-verbs include the following words.  All pro-verbs cannot be described by predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾).

Pro-verbs

噉[gam2]點[dim2]/ 點樣[dim2 joeng2](Only use in a question)

嚟[lai4]

 

Pro-verbs can replace both the verb and the object it takes together, instead of just replacing the verb.

我想噉。(我想食飯)噉 is replacing 食飯.

你唔應該噉。(你唔應該喺圖書館度大叫)噉 is replacing 喺圖書館度大叫.

 

Difference between 噉、點 and 嚟

點[dim2] can only be used in an interrogative sentence(疑問句); 嚟[lai4] can only be used in an imperative sentence(祈使句).  Meanwhile, 噉[gam2] is used in sentences other than interrogative sentence and imperative sentence.

Nei5 m4 jing1 goi1 gam2

你唔應該噉。

You should not act like that.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbPro-verb
Words in sentence應該

 

Ngo5 soeng2 gam2

我想噉。

I want to do that.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAuxiliary verbPro-verb
Words in sentence

 

Ngo5 mei6 si3 gwo3 gam2

我未試過噉。

I have never tried doing something like that.

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate 1Predicative suffixPredicate 2
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbPredicative suffixPro-verb
Words in sentence

 

ngo5 giu3 keoi5 maan6 maan2 lai4

我叫佢慢慢嚟。

I ask him to do it slowly.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbSentence
Words in sentence佢慢慢嚟

 

Object of the sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverbPro-adverb
Words in sentence慢慢

 

Keoi5 man6 nei5 soeng2 dim2

佢問你想點。

He/ she asks what do you want to do.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbSentence
Words in sentence佢慢慢嚟

 

Object of the sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverbPro-adverb
Words in sentence慢慢

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 357-362。

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