U5L3 Pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs(代副詞、代形容詞、代動詞)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, pro-adverbs, pro-adjectives and pro-verbs will be introduced.  Pronoun are used to substitute a noun or a noun phrase.  For pro-adverb(代副詞), pro-adjective(代形容詞)and pro-verb(代動詞), they are used to substitute adverb(副詞), adjective(形容詞)and verb(動詞)respectively.  The meaning of these words are depending on the context and they can be roughly translated as “like that”.

 

Pro-adverb(代副詞)

Pro-adverbs include the following words.

Pro-adverbs

噉[gam2]/ 噉樣[gam2 joeng2] 咁[gam3] 點[dim2」/ 點樣[dim2 joeng2] (Only use in a question)

 

噉 is used to indicate the manner of doing something and it can be translated as “like that”; 噉 can be replaced by 噉樣 in all setting; their meaning and usage is identical.

咁 is always used before adjective to indicate the extent of that adjective.  Example of using 咁 will be introduced in Unit 5 Lesson 4.

點 is an interrogative pronoun(疑問代詞); 點 can be replaced by 點樣 in all setting; their meaning and usage is identical.

Nei5 jiu3 gam2 zou6

你要噉做。

You need to do it like this.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 噉做

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Pro-adverb Verb
Words in sentence /

 

Ngo5 zung1 ji3 gam2 waak6 waa2

我中意噉畫畫。

I like to draw it like this.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 中意 噉畫畫

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech / Pro-adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence /

 

Ngo5 soeng2 nei5 gam2 joeng2 se2 ni1 pin1 man2

我想你噉樣寫呢篇文。

I want you to write this article like this.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Sentence
Words in sentence 你噉樣寫呢篇文

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Pro-adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 噉樣 呢篇文

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 呢篇
Head

Pro-adjectives(代形容詞)

Pro-adjectives include the following words.

Pro-adjectives

噉[gam2]

點[dim2」/ 點樣[dim2 joeng2](Only use in a question)

 

Pro-adjectives can be used as the modifier according to the structure of subordination(偏正式) as well.

Structure
Modifiers + Head
Pro-adjective Noun

 

Ngo5 m4 zung1 ji3 gam2 ge3 neoi5 zai2

我唔中意噉嘅女仔。

I don’t like girl like that.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 中意 噉嘅女仔

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 女仔

 

Ngo5 soeng2 maai5 bou6 gam2 ge3 ce1

我想買部噉嘅車。

I want to buy a car like that.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 買部噉嘅車

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech / Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 部噉嘅車

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 部噉
Head

 

Ngo5 hou2 zang1 di1 gam2 ge3 gung1 si1

我好憎啲噉嘅公司。

I hate such company.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Noun
Words in sentence 啲噉嘅公司

 

Object of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 啲噉
Head 公司

 

Pro-verbs(代動詞)

Pro-verbs include the following words.  All pro-verbs cannot be described by predicative suffix(謂詞詞尾).

Pro-verbs

噉[gam2] 點[dim2]/ 點樣[dim2 joeng2](Only use in a question)

嚟[lai4]

 

Pro-verbs can replace both the verb and the object it takes together, instead of just replacing the verb.

我想噉。(我想食飯)噉 is replacing 食飯.

你唔應該噉。(你唔應該喺圖書館度大叫)噉 is replacing 喺圖書館度大叫.

 

Difference between 噉、點 and 嚟

點[dim2] can only be used in an interrogative sentence(疑問句); 嚟[lai4] can only be used in an imperative sentence(祈使句).  Meanwhile, 噉[gam2] is used in sentences other than interrogative sentence and imperative sentence.

Nei5 m4 jing1 goi1 gam2

你唔應該噉。

You should not act like that.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Pro-verb
Words in sentence 應該

 

Ngo5 soeng2 gam2

我想噉。

I want to do that.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Auxiliary verb Pro-verb
Words in sentence

 

Ngo5 mei6 si3 gwo3 gam2

我未試過噉。

I have never tried doing something like that.

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate 1 Predicative suffix Predicate 2
Part of speech Noun Adverb Verb Predicative suffix Pro-verb
Words in sentence

 

ngo5 giu3 keoi5 maan6 maan2 lai4

我叫佢慢慢嚟。

I ask him to do it slowly.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Sentence
Words in sentence 佢慢慢嚟

 

Object of the sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Pro-adverb
Words in sentence 慢慢

 

Keoi5 man6 nei5 soeng2 dim2

佢問你想點。

He/ she asks what do you want to do.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Sentence
Words in sentence 佢慢慢嚟

 

Object of the sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb Pro-adverb
Words in sentence 慢慢

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 357-362。

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