U5L4 Adjectives in equal degree(相等級)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, you will learn how to express a meaning which something is in an equal degree with something else with an adjective.  To create such meaning, you have to use adverb 一樣[jat1 joeng6] and 咁[gam3] as the adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 一樣 means the same and 咁 is a pro-adverb(代副詞)for indicating the extent of that adjective.

As 同[tung4] is used here as a conjunction, the structure of coordination(並列式)will be used.  For the structure of coordination, you can refer to Unit 3 Lesson 3.

Ngo5 tung4 keoi5 jat1 joeng6 gam3 seng2

我同佢一樣咁醒。

I am as smart as he does.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 我同佢 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Adverbial conjunction Noun
Words in sentence

 

Jat1 gung1 gan1 min4 faa1 tung4 jat1 gung1 gan1 sek6 tau4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 cung5

一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭一樣咁重。

A kilogram of cotton is as heavy as a kilogram of stone.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Adverbial conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 一公斤棉花 一公斤石頭

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一公斤
Head 棉花

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一公斤
Head 石頭

 

Sam1 lei5 hok6 tung4 ging1 zai3 hok6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 naan4

心理學同經濟學一樣咁難。

Psychology is as hard as Economics.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 心理學同經濟學 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Adverbial conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 心理學 經濟學

 

Using clause or complete sentence as the subject

You can also use a clause or a sentence as the subject of the sentence.

hai2 hoeng1 gong2 jam2 caa4 tung4 hai2 gaa1 naa4 daai6 jam2 caa4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 gwai3

喺香港飲茶同喺加拿大飲茶一樣咁貴。

Eating Dim Sum in Hong Kong is as expensive as eating Dim Sum in Canada.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 喺香港飲茶同喺加拿大飲茶 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Clause Adverbial conjunction Clause
Words in sentence 喺香港飲茶 喺加拿大飲茶

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 香港

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 加拿大

 

ngo5 paau2 bou6 tung4 keoi5 paau2 bou6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 faai3

我跑步同佢跑步一樣咁快。

I am running as fast as he does.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 我跑步同佢跑步 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Adverbial conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 我跑步 佢跑步

 

ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5 zyu2 faan6 tung4 ngo5 aa3 maa1 zyu2 faan6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 mei6

我女朋友煮飯同我阿媽煮飯一樣咁好味。

The cooking of my girlfriend is as delicious of the cooking of my mum.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 我女朋友煮飯同我阿媽煮飯 一樣; 咁 好味

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Sentence Adverbial conjunction Sentence
Words in sentence 我女朋友煮飯 我阿媽煮飯

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 我女朋友

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 女朋友

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 我阿媽

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 阿媽

 

hai2 PS4 daa2 gei1 tung4 hai2 din6 nou5 daa2 gei1 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 waan2

喺PS4打機同喺電腦打機一樣咁好玩。

Playing video games on PS4 is as fun as playing video games on PC.

Types of sentence structure Subject-predicative
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence 喺PS4打機同喺電腦打機 一樣; 咁 好玩

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Clause Adverbial conjunction Clause
Words in sentence 喺PS4打機 喺電腦打機

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / PS4

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 電腦

 

Negating under the structure of predicative expression in series(連謂式)

To negate those sentence we have created in this lesson, adverb 唔[m4] has to be used with auxiliary verb(助動詞)係[hai6] instead of just using 唔[m4] alone, as there are other adverbs in the sentence.  There are two ways for you to negate these sentences.  For the first way, you can put 唔係 before 同[tung4].  In this case 同 is a preposition and the whole sentence follows the structure of predicative expression in series(連謂式).

Ngo5 m4 hai6 tung4 keoi5 jat1 joeng6 gam3 seng2

我唔係同佢一樣咁醒。

I am not as smart as he does.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 同佢一樣咁醒

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 一樣; 咁

 

Jat1 gung1 gan1 min4 faa1 m4 hai6 tung4 jat1 gung1 gan1 sek6 tau4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 cung5

一公斤棉花唔係同一公斤石頭一樣咁重。

A kilogram of cotton is not as heavy as a kilogram of stone.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 一公斤棉花 同一公斤石頭一樣咁重

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一公斤
Head 棉花

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 一公斤石頭 一樣; 咁

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一公斤
Head 石頭

 

Sam1 lei5 hok6 m4 hai6 tung4 ging1 zai3 hok6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 naan4

心理學唔係同經濟學一樣咁難。

Psychology is not as hard as Economics.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 心理學 同經濟學一樣咁難

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 經濟學 一樣; 咁

 

You can also use a clause or a sentence as the subject of the sentence.

hai2 hoeng1 gong2 jam2 caa4 m4 hai6 tung4 hai2 gaa1 naa4 daai6 jam2 caa4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 gwai3

喺香港飲茶唔係同喺加拿大飲茶一樣咁貴。

Eating Dim Sum in Hong Kong is as expensive as eating Dim Sum in Canada.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Clause Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 喺香港飲茶 同喺加拿大飲茶一樣咁貴

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 香港

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Clause Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 喺加拿大飲茶 一樣; 咁

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 加拿大

 

ngo5 paau2 bou6 m4 hai6 tung4 keoi5 paau2 bou6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 faai3

我跑步唔係同佢跑步一樣咁快。

I am running as fast as he does.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Sentence Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我跑步 同佢跑步一樣咁快

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Sentence Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 佢跑步 一樣; 咁

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence

 

ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5 zyu2 faan6 m4 hai6 tung4 ngo5 aa3 maa1 zyu2 faan6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 mei6

我女朋友煮飯唔係同我阿媽煮飯一樣咁好味。

The cooking of my girlfriend is as delicious of the cooking of my mum.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Sentence Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我女朋友煮飯 同我阿媽煮飯一樣咁好味

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 我女朋友

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 女朋友

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Sentence Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 我阿媽煮飯 一樣; 咁 好味

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence 我阿媽

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier
Head 阿媽

 

hai2 PS4 daa2 gei1 m4 hai6 tung4 hai2 din6 nou5 daa2 gei1 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 waan2

喺PS4打機唔係同喺電腦打機一樣咁好玩。

Playing video games on PS4 is as fun as playing video games on PC.

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Clause Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 喺PS4打機 同喺電腦打機一樣咁好玩

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / PS4

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Adverbial 2 Predicate 2
Part of speech / Preposition Clause Adverb; Pro-adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 喺電腦打機 一樣; 咁 好玩

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure  Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentence Subject Predicate 1 Object 1 Predicate 2 Object 2
Part of speech / Preposition Noun Verb Noun
Words in sentence / 電腦

 

Negating under the structure of coordination(並列式)

For the second way, you can use 唔[m4] and 係[hai6] after subjects.  In this case 同[tung4] is a conjunction(連詞)and the subject follows the structure of coordination(並列式).

Ngo5 tung4 keoi5 m4 hai6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 seng2

我同佢唔係一樣咁醒。

I am not as smart as he does.

Types of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 我同佢 一樣咁醒

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 一樣; 咁

 

Jat1 gung1 gan1 min4 faa1 tung4 jat1 gung1 gan1 sek6 tau4 m4 hai6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 cung5

一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭唔係一樣咁重。

A kilogram of cotton is not as heavy as a kilogram of stone.

Types of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭 一樣咁重

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Adverbial conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 一公斤棉花 一公斤石頭

 

Subject 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一公斤
Head 棉花

 

Subject 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Subordination
Modifier 一公斤
Head 石頭

 

Sam1 lei5 hok6 tung4 ging1 zai3 hok6 m4 hai6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 naan4

心理學同經濟學唔係一樣咁難。

Psychology is not as hard as Economics.

Types of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate Object
Part of speech Noun Adverb Auxiliary verb Clause
Words in sentence 心理學同經濟學 一樣咁難

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative-object
Functions in sentence Subject Adverbial Predicate
Part of speech / Adverb Adjective
Words in sentence / 一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Coordination
Functions in sentence Subject 1 Conjunction Subject 2
Part of speech Noun Adverbial conjunction Noun
Words in sentence 心理學 經濟學

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 373

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