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U5L4 Adjectives in equal degree(相等級)

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, you will learn how to express a meaning which something is in an equal degree with something else with an adjective.  To create such meaning, you have to use adverb 一樣[jat1 joeng6] and 咁[gam3] as the adverbial(狀語)of a sentence; 一樣 means the same and 咁 is a pro-adverb(代副詞)for indicating the extent of that adjective.

As 同[tung4] is used here as a conjunction, the structure of coordination(並列式)will be used.  For the structure of coordination, you can refer to Unit 3 Lesson 3.

Ngo5 tung4 keoi5 jat1 joeng6 gam3 seng2

我同佢一樣咁醒。

I am as smart as he does.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence我同佢一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechNounAdverbial conjunctionNoun
Words in sentence

 

Jat1 gung1 gan1 min4 faa1 tung4 jat1 gung1 gan1 sek6 tau4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 cung5

一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭一樣咁重。

A kilogram of cotton is as heavy as a kilogram of stone.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechNounAdverbial conjunctionNoun
Words in sentence一公斤棉花一公斤石頭

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一公斤
Head棉花

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一公斤
Head石頭

 

Sam1 lei5 hok6 tung4 ging1 zai3 hok6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 naan4

心理學同經濟學一樣咁難。

Psychology is as hard as Economics.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence心理學同經濟學一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechNounAdverbial conjunctionNoun
Words in sentence心理學經濟學

 

Using clause or complete sentence as the subject

You can also use a clause or a sentence as the subject of the sentence.

hai2 hoeng1 gong2 jam2 caa4 tung4 hai2 gaa1 naa4 daai6 jam2 caa4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 gwai3

喺香港飲茶同喺加拿大飲茶一樣咁貴。

Eating Dim Sum in Hong Kong is as expensive as eating Dim Sum in Canada.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence喺香港飲茶同喺加拿大飲茶一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechClauseAdverbial conjunctionClause
Words in sentence喺香港飲茶喺加拿大飲茶

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/香港

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/加拿大

 

ngo5 paau2 bou6 tung4 keoi5 paau2 bou6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 faai3

我跑步同佢跑步一樣咁快。

I am running as fast as he does.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence我跑步同佢跑步一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechNounAdverbial conjunctionNoun
Words in sentence我跑步佢跑步

 

ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5 zyu2 faan6 tung4 ngo5 aa3 maa1 zyu2 faan6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 mei6

我女朋友煮飯同我阿媽煮飯一樣咁好味。

The cooking of my girlfriend is as delicious of the cooking of my mum.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence我女朋友煮飯同我阿媽煮飯一樣; 咁好味

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechSentenceAdverbial conjunctionSentence
Words in sentence我女朋友煮飯我阿媽煮飯

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence我女朋友

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head女朋友

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence我阿媽

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head阿媽

 

hai2 PS4 daa2 gei1 tung4 hai2 din6 nou5 daa2 gei1 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 waan2

喺PS4打機同喺電腦打機一樣咁好玩。

Playing video games on PS4 is as fun as playing video games on PC.

Types of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence喺PS4打機同喺電腦打機一樣; 咁好玩

 

Subject of that sentence
Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechClauseAdverbial conjunctionClause
Words in sentence喺PS4打機喺電腦打機

 

Subject 1 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/PS4

 

Subject 2 of that sentence
Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/電腦

 

Negating under the structure of predicative expression in series(連謂式)

To negate those sentence we have created in this lesson, adverb 唔[m4] has to be used with auxiliary verb(助動詞)係[hai6] instead of just using 唔[m4] alone, as there are other adverbs in the sentence.  There are two ways for you to negate these sentences.  For the first way, you can put 唔係 before 同[tung4].  In this case 同 is a preposition and the whole sentence follows the structure of predicative expression in series(連謂式).

Ngo5 m4 hai6 tung4 keoi5 jat1 joeng6 gam3 seng2

我唔係同佢一樣咁醒。

I am not as smart as he does.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence同佢一樣咁醒

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/一樣; 咁

 

Jat1 gung1 gan1 min4 faa1 m4 hai6 tung4 jat1 gung1 gan1 sek6 tau4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 cung5

一公斤棉花唔係同一公斤石頭一樣咁重。

A kilogram of cotton is not as heavy as a kilogram of stone.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭一樣咁重

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一公斤
Head棉花

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/一公斤石頭一樣; 咁

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一公斤
Head石頭

 

Sam1 lei5 hok6 m4 hai6 tung4 ging1 zai3 hok6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 naan4

心理學唔係同經濟學一樣咁難。

Psychology is not as hard as Economics.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence心理學同經濟學一樣咁難

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/經濟學一樣; 咁

 

You can also use a clause or a sentence as the subject of the sentence.

hai2 hoeng1 gong2 jam2 caa4 m4 hai6 tung4 hai2 gaa1 naa4 daai6 jam2 caa4 jat1 joeng6 gam3 gwai3

喺香港飲茶唔係同喺加拿大飲茶一樣咁貴。

Eating Dim Sum in Hong Kong is as expensive as eating Dim Sum in Canada.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechClauseAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence喺香港飲茶同喺加拿大飲茶一樣咁貴

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/香港

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionClauseAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/喺加拿大飲茶一樣; 咁

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/加拿大

 

ngo5 paau2 bou6 m4 hai6 tung4 keoi5 paau2 bou6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 faai3

我跑步唔係同佢跑步一樣咁快。

I am running as fast as he does.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechSentenceAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我跑步同佢跑步一樣咁快

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionSentenceAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/佢跑步一樣; 咁

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence

 

ngo5 neoi5 pang4 jau5 zyu2 faan6 m4 hai6 tung4 ngo5 aa3 maa1 zyu2 faan6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 mei6

我女朋友煮飯唔係同我阿媽煮飯一樣咁好味。

The cooking of my girlfriend is as delicious of the cooking of my mum.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechSentenceAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我女朋友煮飯同我阿媽煮飯一樣咁好味

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence我女朋友

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head女朋友

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionSentenceAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/我阿媽煮飯一樣; 咁好味

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence我阿媽

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier
Head阿媽

 

hai2 PS4 daa2 gei1 m4 hai6 tung4 hai2 din6 nou5 daa2 gei1 jat1 joeng6 gam3 hou2 waan2

喺PS4打機唔係同喺電腦打機一樣咁好玩。

Playing video games on PS4 is as fun as playing video games on PC.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechClauseAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence喺PS4打機同喺電腦打機一樣咁好玩

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/PS4

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Adverbial 2Predicate 2
Part of speech/PrepositionClauseAdverb; Pro-adverbAdjective
Words in sentence/喺電腦打機一樣; 咁好玩

 

Object 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structure Predicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speech/PrepositionNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/電腦

 

Negating under the structure of coordination(並列式)

For the second way, you can use 唔[m4] and 係[hai6] after subjects.  In this case 同[tung4] is a conjunction(連詞)and the subject follows the structure of coordination(並列式).

Ngo5 tung4 keoi5 m4 hai6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 seng2

我同佢唔係一樣咁醒。

I am not as smart as he does.

Types of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence我同佢一樣咁醒

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speech/AdverbAdjective
Words in sentence/一樣; 咁

 

Jat1 gung1 gan1 min4 faa1 tung4 jat1 gung1 gan1 sek6 tau4 m4 hai6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 cung5

一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭唔係一樣咁重。

A kilogram of cotton is not as heavy as a kilogram of stone.

Types of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence一公斤棉花同一公斤石頭一樣咁重

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speech/AdverbAdjective
Words in sentence/一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechNounAdverbial conjunctionNoun
Words in sentence一公斤棉花一公斤石頭

 

Subject 1 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一公斤
Head棉花

 

Subject 2 of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier一公斤
Head石頭

 

Sam1 lei5 hok6 tung4 ging1 zai3 hok6 m4 hai6 jat1 joeng6 gam3 naan4

心理學同經濟學唔係一樣咁難。

Psychology is not as hard as Economics.

Types of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbAuxiliary verbClause
Words in sentence心理學同經濟學一樣咁難

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speech/AdverbAdjective
Words in sentence/一樣; 咁

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structureCoordination
Functions in sentenceSubject 1ConjunctionSubject 2
Part of speechNounAdverbial conjunctionNoun
Words in sentence心理學經濟學

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 373

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