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U5L7 Superlative adjective 最[zeoi3]

 

In this Cantonese grammar lesson, superlative adjective in Cantonese will be introduced.  You can indicate an adjective as a superlative adjective(最高級), which is an adjective that describe the subject at the upper or the lower limit, by adding adverb(副詞)最[zeoi3] to the sentence.  The clause or the sentence that you add 最 in has to be in subject-predicative(主謂式).

ping4 si4 co5 fo2 ce1 faan2 hok6 zeoi3 faai3

平時坐火車返學最快。

It is usually the fastest to go to school by train.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence平時坐火車返學最快

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechClauseAdverbAdjective
Words in sentence坐火車返學

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounVerbNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/火車

 

fei1 gei1 hai6 zeoi3 faai3 ge3 gaau1 tung1 gung1 geoi6

飛機係最快嘅交通工具。

Plane is the fastest transportation.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence飛機最快嘅交通工具

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier最快
Head交通工具

 

ngo5 hai6 cyun4 sai3 gaai3 zeoi3 cung1 ming4 ge3 jan4

我係全世界最聰明嘅人。

I am the smartest person in the world.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence全世界最聰明嘅人

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier全世界最聰明
Head

 

lau4 lin4 hai6 zeoi3 hou2 mei6 ge3 seoi2 gwo2

榴槤係最好味嘅水果。

Durian is the most delicious fruit.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicateObject
Part of speechNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence榴槤最好味嘅水果

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier最好味
Head水果

 

Table of contents

Negating

For negating sentences created with 最, you need to using adverb 唔[m4] with auxiliary verb(助動詞)係[hai6] to negate the sentence, as there is another adverb(i.e. 最) in the sentence.

ping4 si4 co5 fo2 ce1 faan2 hok6 m4 hai6 zeoi3 faai3

平時坐火車返學唔係最快。

It is usually not the fastest to go to school by train.

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate
Part of speechNounSentence
Words in sentence平時坐火車返學唔係最快

 

Predicate of the sentence

Type of sentence structureSubject-predicative
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicate
Part of speechClauseAdverbAdjective
Words in sentence坐火車返學唔係; 最

 

Subject of that sentence

Type of sentence structurePredicative expression in series
Functions in sentenceSubjectPredicate 1Object 1Predicate 2Object 2
Part of speechNounVerbNounVerbNoun
Words in sentence/火車

 

fei1 gei1 m4 hai6 zeoi3 faai3 ge3 gaau1 tung1 gung1 geoi6

飛機唔係最快嘅交通工具。

Plane is not the fastest transportation.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence飛機最快嘅交通工具

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier最快
Head交通工具

 

ngo5 m4 hai6 cyun4 sai3 gaai3 zeoi3 cung1 ming4 ge3 jan4

我唔係全世界最聰明嘅人。

I am not the smartest person in the world.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence全世界最聰明嘅人

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier全世界最聰明
Head

 

lau4 lin4 m4 hai6 zeoi3 hou2 mei6 ge3 seoi2 gwo2

榴槤唔係最好味嘅水果。

Durian is not the most delicious fruit.

Type of sentence structurePredicative-object
Functions in sentenceSubjectAdverbialPredicateObject
Part of speechNounAdverbVerbNoun
Words in sentence榴槤最好味嘅水果

 

Object of that sentence

Type of sentence structureSubordination
Modifier最好味
Head水果

 

Reference

  1. 張洪年(2007)。香港粤語語法的研究(增訂版)。香港:中文大學出版社,頁 375

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